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Transcript of Portfolio
History of Literacy and Theories
Fall 2014 Portfolio
Explicitly explain strategies for
ie. RAP, Predicting, Visualizing
Literacy Intervention Rooms
Many texts with a
range of complexity
with current research
Good Readers are..
Analyze how visual and multimedia
elements contribute to the meaning,
tone, or beauty of a text.
Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Reading behavior revealed
that skilled reading does not
involve the use of a single
strategy, but the coordination
of multiple strategies while
Moment-to-moment verbal support
text to model
Write narratives to develop real or
imagined experiences or events
using effective technique,
relevant descriptive details, and
well-structured event sequences.
Write routinely over extended
time frames and shorter time frames.
Mentor and Exemplar Texts
Use mentor texts to guide
Give students a variety of exemplar texts
They will encourage student
understanding of each of the 6+1
An anchor chart
for students to reference
Authentic Project Instruction leads to better writing
Write for an intended audience
Teachers are writers.
Use your writing to teach
Explicitly model the
Teach writing genres as
you would reading genres by
using many mentor texts
with genre specific
Phonics and the Alphabetic Principle
Literacy For A Better World
Evolution of Reading Research and Practice
Conditioned Learning (1950-1965)
Natural Learning (1966-1975)
Information Processing (1976-1985)
Sociocultural Learning (1986-1995)
Engaged Learning (1996-Present)
Social Cognitive Theory
Self-Efficacy in Learning
Combines Behaviorism and social Learning
Effects that media has on student Learning
Language Experience Charts
to increase collaboration (K-3)
across grade levels (multi-age education)
Because reading is multidimensional in character, with significant relations among reader's knowledge, strategic processing, and motivation, simple models or theories based on a "learning to read" and "reading to learn" distinction need to be supplemented with more complex, reciprocal models of reading development (Alexander, 2003).
Why it matters...
According to Englert et.
"Writers must be
editing, and revising
strategies as well as be
proficient in the use
of text structures as
tools for generating,
monitoring their texts"
Alexander, R.J. (2003) ʻOracy, literacy and pedagogy: international perspectivesʼ, in Bearne, E., Dombey, H.,
Grainger, T. (ed) Interactions in Language and Literacy in the Classroom, Open University Press, pp 23-35.
Brown, R., Pressley, M., Van Meter, P., & Schuder, T. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional
strategies instruction with low-achieving second-grade readers.
Journal of Educational Society
"The significant improvement of ESLs
in the experimental group
demonstrates the benefits of receiving
direct/explicit instruction in
multi-sensory activities that address
important aspects of reading...together
with reading scaffolding in the
application of cognitive and
metacognitive reading comprehension
strategies" (Van Straden, 2011, p. 18)
Van Straden, A. (2011). Put reading first: Positive effects of direct instruction and scaffolding for ESL learners
struggling with reading. Perspectives in Education, 29(4), 10-21.
Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.
Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words.
Manipulate sounds in spoken
"For low skilled children,
intervention in phonological
manipulation appears necessary
to advance their ability on
blending and segmenting tasks."
(O'Connor, Jenkins, &
O'Connor, R.E., Jenkins, J.R., & Slocum, T.A., (1995). Transfer among phonological asks in kindergarten: Essential
Journal of Educational Psychology. 87, 202-217.
With poor readers in Grades 1 and 2 and at
risk children, there is strong evidence of a
positive effect on reading with intervention
that combines phonological awareness
instruction and explicit, systematic
instruction in reading. (Blachman B.A.
Blachman, B.A. (1994). What we have learned from longitudinal studies of phonological processing and
reading, and some unanswered questions: A response t Tirgesebm Wagner, and Rashotte.
Learning Disabilities, 27.
Effective strategies for phonemic awareness
Rhyming books and songs
Phoneme games with
blending, segmenting, and
Give them a lot of ways to practice (Hink pinks, Games, Tongue Twisters)
Show teachers the
benefit of using KPALS instruction
If students show that they are
struggling with segmenting
sounds, intervention should take
Say it and Move It
Implement all 5 steps of RTR
and they need to be
taught in order.
5 Steps to Phonics Instruction
Teach/Review Sound-Symbol Correspondents
Teach/Review New Skill (Decoding)
Review phonetically regular words
and high frequency words
Read orally in context
Teach the six syllable types
Closed Syllable (bat, stop)
Silent E (same, plate)
Open Syllable (go, she)
Vowel+R Syllable (car, burn)
Vowel Team (eat, rain)
Consonant + LE (candle, staple)
Spellings systematically represent the sounds of spoken words
Letters represent each speech sound
must be explicit .
Learning about the alphabet
Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
Decode multisyllable words.
Encourage teachers to track
invented spelling practices of their students.
"The non-phonics taught children to produce more refusals when
trying to work out unfamiliar
words. This gives them fewer opportunities to rehearse the
content of the story as their
reading of the text proceeds"
(Connelly, Johnston, &
Connelly, V., Johnston, R., & Thompson, G. B. (2001). The effect of phonics instruction on the reading
comprehension of beginning readers. Reading
and Writing, 14
Children go through a logo-graphic language first
Phonics instruction can help
students with spelling and writing
make it, take it!
Use alphabet books to
Nine steps to fluency
Build the graphophonic
Build and extend vocabulary
Provide expert instruction on
high frequency vocabulary
Teach common word parts &
Model the application of
Use appropriate texts to
coach reading speed
Repeat reading procedures
for struggling readers
Extend growing fluency with
Monitor fluency development
Read grade-level prose and poetry orally
with accuracy, appropriate rate, and
expression on successive readings.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading
Encourage students to self-correct and read orally
Pikulski, J. J., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge Between Decoding and Reading Comprehension.
adapted from Pikulski & Chard (2005).
Create fluency groups for daily development Daily 5 rotations to meet needs of diverse learners
Expression and volume
Repeated readings and
guided oral readings
Theory suggests that
reading automatically "frees"
the learner to focus on the meaning of the text (Burns & Griffin, 1998)
Reutzei, D.R. (1996). Deveioping at-risk readers' orai reading fiuency. In L. Putnam (Ed.), How to become a
better reader: Strategies for assessment and intervention (pp.241-254). Engiewood Ciiffs, NJ: Merriii.
Development happens by...
Exposure to print
Present Risely to District
Wright (2012) found that "teachers serving in economically advantaged schools provided more of these teachable moments and addressed more challenging words than teachers serving in predominantly low-income schools" (p. 355)
Wright, T.S. (2012). What classroom observations reveal about oral vocabulary instruction in
kindergarten. Reading Research Quarterly, 47, 353-355.
How to close the gap
Increase encouragement talk
Listen to texts
Kostewicz, Douglas E., & Kubina, R. Comparison of two reading fluency methods: Repeated readings to
a fluency criterion and interval sprinting.
Reading Improvement 47,
Build everyday language first
Hart, B., & Risley T.R., (2003, Spring). The early catastrophe: The million word gap by age 3. In
. Retrieved from http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/american_educator/spring2003
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
Get the families involved.
Host vocabulary nights
and encourage correspondents
"Eighty-six percent to 98 percent of the words recorded in each child's vocabulary consisted of words also recorded in their parents vocabularies" (Hart & Risely, 2003).
Tier 1: Common
Tier 2: Cross Curricular
Tier 3: Domain-Specific
big, small, family
explain, justify, maintain
mitosis, meiosis, osmosis
Create a print-rich
environment and use digital
tools to increase exposure
Provide guidance and feedback
to promote independent word
Variety of students can use them
Students can use visual clues to help them decode information
Student motivation is increased because they feel confident with the text
Student motivation is increased because they enjoy reading them.
Why use them?
"Graphic novels encouraged reading
engagement and had a positive impact
on their interest in reading independently"
(Gavigan, 2011, p. 57)
Gavigan, M. (2011). More powerful than a locomotive: Using graphic novels to motivate struggling readers.
e Journal of Research on Libraries and Young Adults, 1(3)
. Retrieved from http://www.yalsa.ala.org/jrlya/2011/06/
express that they most
enjoy this genre
Can and should be
used in a variety of settings.
Interest inventory at the beginning
of the year-is it something they already do?
Make them accessible in the classroom
Provide ELL teachers with supplemental texts and
training on how to use
Use them in multiple
content areas. There are
graphic novels on nearly
How to use them
Used to teach similar literary skills as novels. (Foreshadowing, characterization, theme etc.)
Should be treated as their own medium.
Explain conventions found in graphic novels
Graphic novels for struggling readers
Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
Topics to teach
Disability and Difference
Gender, Sexuality, and
Race, Class and Social Justice
Global Multicultural Contexts
Create a social action project, regardless of grade.
Why it's important.
Make personal connections
Bring it to student lives
If they don't learn it in school,
where are they going to learn it?
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.
"Authentic literacy projects can be
used to provide students with the experience, knowledge, and literacy
skills that will help them become
engaged, successful learners
in the middle years" (Ryan, 2008
Pull from a variety of genres.
Dialogue may be heavy
because many of these
topics and stories require guided instruction
Ryan, M. Engaging projects that matter.
Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 52
Fluency tests often using
standardized, valid and reliable
Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of
evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links
among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
Provide multiple texts of varying genres on different topics to classroom libraries
Student and family surveys about interests outside of the classroom
Allow time to read for
enjoyment purposes (Daily 5)
"Children who do not attach
importance to learning to read
will not be motivated to learn”
(Roe, Smith, Burns, 2005, p. 3)
According to Shinn, Walker,
and Stoner (2002), “early academic
experiences that consistently end in
failure can easily decrease students’
motivation to engage in the hard work
reading requires” (p. 736).
Why does it matter?
decrease in behavior
Upwards of 40% of
students are unmotivated
Motivation affects every
aspect of school, just like
Principles to follow
Create an accepting
Literacy assessment should
also assess resilience
Direct modeling to promote
Literacy and Self-Efficacy
a.Self-select text based on personal preferences.
Include multimedia components
and visual displays in
presentationsto clarify claims and
emphasize salient points.
as a tool
Roe, B, Smith, S, & Burns, P (2005). Teaching Reading In Today's Elementary Schools. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Shinn, M, Walker, H, & Stoner, G (2002). Interventions for Academic and Behavior Problems II: Prevention
and Remedial Approaches. Bethesda: NASP Publications.