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The Human Brain

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Mark White

on 11 October 2018

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Transcript of The Human Brain

Essential Questions:
•What are the major functions of the central nervous system?
•What are the different parts of the brain and how do they work?
•How does the endocrine system affect the human body?
• How does heredity influence personality?

Covered in neural tissue called the cerebral cortex.
These are the lobes of the brain-all the big functions here.

Frontal Lobe

ability to recognize future consequences from present action
differ between good and bad actions
eliminates and retains socially unacceptable behavior
determines what is similar and different about situations
retaining long term memories associated with emotions from the limbic system
sequencing events, facial expressions and other things dealing with communicating with others
flexibility of thinking processes, attentiveness and mood swings.
Language expressions and problem solving
controls our motor function
What we understand as personality or lack of it -damage shows here..
The frontal lobes control most of the emotions.
They also control many of the judgements related to sympathy.
This means this is the part of the brain that understands other's feelings and emotions.
This is that part of the brain that understands humor, sarcasm, deception, and irony.
It is where we understand how to act "socially normal", this is that part of the brain that understand how another person's brain works.
The two lobes...
The left side of the frontal lobes in mostly language related.
The right side of the frontal lobes is more nonverbal.

It is the creative side of the brain.
It focuses more of the logical side of things.
functions to comprehend the division of reality in simple events
It notices the relationships between objects and events
It controls the defense mechanisms.

controls our judgement, personalities, and emotions
amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine are used in order to produce dopamine
released by the hypothalamus.
released when pleasurable activities are expected to happen. ("desire")
released when unpleasant stimuli are encountered
Emergencies and horror movies
associated with pleasure, motivation and reward
monitors our metabolism
motivates us to do certain activities.
controls the flow of information to other parts of the brain (occurs in frontal lobe).
motor coordination
attention and learning
Functions related to power such as blood pressure, metabolism and digestion.
Disorders associated with Dopamine...
The Temporal lobe...
Damage to the Temporal Lobe-Indication of what the Lobe does:

Researchers have found eight major symptoms associated
with damage to the temporal lobe:

1.Problems with auditory sensation and perception
2.Difficulty attending to auditory and visual stimuli
3.Visual perception disorders
4.Problems organizing and categorizing verbal materials
5.Language comprehension problems
6.Impaired long-term memory
7.Changes in affective behavior and personality
8.Changes in sexual behavior

The location of the damage to the temporal lobe is
linked to the type of impairment the individual experiences.
For example, damage to the left temporal lobe can result in
difficulty recognizing words while damage to the right
temporal lobe can result in a lack on inhibition when talking.
Basal Ganglia
The basal ganglia are “messengers” in the middle of the brain. They sort out
information for the spinal cord and cerebellum. Many arteries work with the basal ganglia
Insula Cortex
Autonomic function; gustatory (sense of taste), olfactory, auditory, somatosensory, and multimodal perception, as well as body awareness; the emotion of disgust; mood and willed action, addiction behavior, has a major role as a convergence zone implicated in the coordination between internal and external
Limbic system
lim·bic sys·tem
a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain, involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct and mood. It controls the basic emotions (fear, pleasure, anger) and drives (hunger, sex, dominance, care of offspring).
Busiest part of the brain
Maintains Homeostasis
Regulates your hunger, thirst, response to pain, levels of pleasure, sexual satisfaction, anger and aggressive behavior.
Regulates the autonomic nervous system
pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and responses to emotional circumstances
Converts things from "in the mind" short term memory to things that are long term memory.
Functions as a relay station for nerve impulses
Carries sensory information into the brain
Receives sensory inputs and determine which of these signals to forward to the cerebral cortex.
The Parietal Lobe...
(gamma-amino-butyric acid)
located in the central nervous system.
blocks nerve impulses in the brain and acts as a natural tranquilizer (inhibitory neurotransmitter)
has calming affects.
linked with relaxation and anti-anxiety affects.
regulates muscle tone
invloved with the productions of endorphines and chemicals involved with the feeling of well being.
Disorders linked to GABA
Premenstrual Syndrome
Male Contraceptive
Blood sugar and Diabetes
plays a big role in changing objects perceived visually into body coordinate positions.
involved in language processing.
part of cognition, information processing, pain and touch sensation, spatial orientation, speech, and visual perception.
Primary Sensory Cortex
Motor Cortex
Located in the top, middle part of the brain
controls movement in various parts of the body.
Located in the front part of the parietal lobe
tactile sensation
response to internal stimuli
sensory comprehension
visual functions.
Wernicke's Area
essential for understanding and formulating speech-damage here causes "speechlessness"
Broca's Area
facial neurons
language comprehension
Involved with learning and memory, and stimulates muscle tissue. This is where the message crosses the nerve synapse electrochemically with an order to make the muscle move.

Acts in both the central nervous system and in the peripheral nervous system
peripheral nervous system
- activates muscles and acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system

central nervous system
- forms the cholinergic system (sending signals to other parts of the body)
Disorders associated with Acetylcholine
Alzheimer's Disease
Myasthenia Gravis
GABA is the most abundant of all neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Chemically it is actually an amino acid, however, it is not an alpha amino acid. In order to produce and conserve GABA, and GABA shunt occurs. This is simply a closed loop processes responsible for the synthesis, conservation and metabolism of GABA.
Wernicke's Area
Located to the front of the parietal lobe
important for understanding the sensory (auditory and visual) information associated with language
Damage to this area can cause sensory aphasia which causes one to not understand language but still make sounds
Alzheimer’s disease
Myasthenia Gravis
Memory Lapse
The Occipital lobe
smallest of the four lobes and is located in the rear most part of the human brain
receives visual information from the eyes , processes it and sends this information to Wernicke's area located in the parietal lobe and motor cortex located in the frontal lobe
interprets the upside-down images projected onto the retina by the lens of the eye.
responsible for color recognition.
concerned with sleep. A brain must have sufficient rest in order to function properly.
helps with cognitive ability and stable moods.
Primary visual Cortex
responsible for processing visual information.
receives visual input from the retina which are interpreted in the occipital lobes.
has about six layers
also known as area 17 and striate cortex.
Peristriate region
Involved with:
visuospatial processing
discrimination of movement
color discrimination
produced primarily in the Peripheral Nervous System - read the Gastrointestinal Tract and the Brain
Central Nervous system- deals mainly with anger regulation, body temperature, mood, sleep , pain modulation and appetite.
Peripheral Nervous system - deals with GI motility and pain modulation.
associated with a healing, nourishing, satisfied feeling in the body.
Tryptophan is required for the production of serotonin
Anxiety Disorders
Bipolar Disorders
Eating Disorders
Sleep Disorders

Parkinson's disease
Works Cited -Frontal Lobe
"AP Psych - Biological Bases - Memrise." AP Psych - Biological Bases - Memrise. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.

"Dopamine." Dopamine. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.

"Dopaminergic Pathways - Netter Medical Artwork." Dopaminergic Pathways - Netter Medical Artwork. Elsevier., 2005. Web. 05 Dec. 2012

"Frontal Lobes." Traumatic Brain Injury Resource Guide -. Centre for Neuro Skills, 2012. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.

Furey, Jenny. "VCEhelp.com.au." VCEhelpcomau RSS. Peak Potential Success Centres Australasia Pty Ltd, 2011. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.

"Health & Obesity Archives - ConscienHealth." ConscienHealth. ConscienHealth, 2009. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.

"Humanities." Humanities. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.

Kinser, Patricia A. "Brain Structures and Their Functions." Brain Structures and Their Functions. Serendip, 1994. Web. 05 Dec. 2012

"What Is a Cerebral Contusion?" Boston Brain Injury Attorneys. Iley Law Group, LLC, 2012. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.
Works Cited
Boeree, C. George. "The Limbic System." The Limbic System. C. George Boeree, 2002. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.

Cherry, Kendra. "The Anatomy of The Brain." About.com Psychology. About.com, 2012. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.

"Frontal Lobe." Frontal Lobe. Rice University, 2000. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.

Kinser, Patricia A. "Brain Structures and Their Functions." Brain Structures and Their Functions. Serendip, 1994. Web. 05 Dec. 2012

"Occipital Lobe." Occipital Lobe. Rice University, 2000. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.

"Parietal Lobe." Parietal Lobe. Rice University, 2000. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.

"Temporal Lobe." Temporal Lobe. Rice University, 2000. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.

"Temporal Lobe Epilepsy." Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Epilepsy Foundation of America, 2012. Web. 07 Dec. 2012.
The Human Brain

How does this Cauliflower
like blob turn us into
Humans and not an earthworms
a compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine.
Lack of this chemical brings on the onset of Parkinson's Disease.
Dopamine is often injected into the body when something..."Good" happens.
Falling in love-seeing a baby-riding a rollercoaster-watch a horror film-when it is over-dopamine is released. And one laughs and feels good.
For athletes a thing called "runners high" comes from exercise and the injection of Dopamine. Takes more and more sometimes.....runners get addicted.
Medula Oblongata
Cerebellum-has to do with motor
control, Cognitive function such as
attention and language

The Medulla contains the center for cardiac, respiratory and vasomotor centers....autonomic-vomiting, blood pressure, heartbeat, coughing, sneezing-these are dominated by autonomic functions.
The Cerebrum

Functions with issues of emotions
associated with aggression and emotions.
Binge drinkers often damage this portion
of the brain.
Increased serotonin here decreases anxiety
OCD disorders can be lessoned here.
Frontal Lobe Damage
Often medical responses can be stroke or
Traumatic Brain Injuries
With damage may know the proper responses
but in real life might show inappropriate behavior

Emotions are not shown even if the person is
for example happy, they might appear devoid of

Some weird effects are
reduplicative paramnesia-is a well recognized neurological phenomenon, characterized by a false belief that a familiar person or place has been duplicated.
Capgras Syndrome-is a disorder in which a person holds a delusion that a friend, spouse, parent, or other close family member (or pet) has been replaced by an identical-looking imposter

Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals, including humans.

It is popularly thought to be a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness.
Metabolized by the Liver
Drugs that alter Serotonin levels aim to alter issuse of depression, anxiety, and social phobia.

tryptophan functions as a biochemical precursor for the several compounds including Serotonin.

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