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Cells

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Chrystina Anderson

on 31 October 2012

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Transcript of Cells

Cells By; Chrystina Anderson Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are compounds that provide energy to living cells in the body.
There are a lot of forms of carbohydrates such as; sugar, starches and cellulose http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/organic/carb.html Proteins Proteins are mostly found in meat.Such as; steak, turkey and chicken. there are a lot of different kinds of proteins such as cheese and eggs. Nucleic Acid Nucleic acid is like DNA or RNA there are a lot of different kinds of DNA. Nucleic acid helps transfer one genetic to the next generation. there are two different kinds of nucleic acid; Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and ribonucleic acid. these are the scientific name for DNA and RNA. For carbohydrates to break down they have to go thrugh the digestive system. Carbohydrates are calories that help you gain weight but are also used for energy . you would normally burn these calories by exercising and eating right Diffusion http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_diffusion_works.html Diffusion refers to the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion. Consider two containers of gas A and B separated by a partition. The molecules of both gases are in constant motion and make numerous collisions with the partition. If the partition is removed as in the lower illustration, the gases will mix because of the random velocities of their molecules. Osmosis Proses of fighting off germs. OSMOSIS in a plant cell

Osmosis is a special example of diffusion. It is the diffusion of a substance through a semipermeable membrane from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution. This process is also passive since no external energy is needed What is meant by the word 'active' in the term called active transport??

Moving cells Photosynthesis the complex process by which carbon dioxide, water, and certain inorganic salts are converted into carbohydrates by green plants, algae, and certain bacteria, using energy from the sun and chlorophyll. Respiration The act of respiring; inhalation and exhalation of air; breathing. Fermentation A change brought about by a ferment, as yeast enzymes, which convert grape sugar into ethyl alcohol. Where does photosynthesis take place in a plant? Photosynthesis takes place in the Chloroplast in the plant cell, it contains Chlorophyll. Prezi Task List Notes:

Name:
Period:


Background: Four organic compounds make up all living things. Define each of them:

1. carbohydrates:

2. lipids (fats):

3. proteins:

4. nucleic acids:

Task 1: List sources of the following:

• 3 carbohydrates:

• 3 lipids or fats:

• 3 proteins:

• 1 DNA or RNA:

Task 2: Tell where in the body (organs) the below nutrients are broken down?

• Carbohydrates:
• Lipids or fats:
• Proteins:

Where is bile formed?
What does bile do?
What gland is it stored in?
Where is this gland connected to?

Task 3:

Define ‘diffusion’:


Give an example of diffusion of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the body:


Define ‘osmosis’:


Give an example of ‘osmosis’ in plant cells:


True or False Diffusion will stop once molecules are EQUAL in the two areas involved.

True or False Passive transport processes like diffusion and osmosis happens without using cell’s energy.

Sometimes, cells might have particles too big to diffuse in and out of the cell. They need to have something (transport proteins) to get them in and out of the cell membrane. This is known as ‘active transport’.

What is meant by the word ‘active’ in the term called active transport?



Task 4: Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration vs. Fermentation

Describe the similarities and differences of the processes known as photosynthesis, cellular respiration and fermentation by filling in the data table below:


Energy Processes: Photosynthesis Respiration Fermentation
Energy Source?
Occurs where?
Reactants:
Products:





Task 5:

Define each term:

• Photosynthesis:

• Respiration:

• Fermentation:

Where does photosynthesis take place in a plant?

Where does respiration take place in an animal cell?

Where does fermentation take place in a cell?


Fill in the ingredients for photosynthesis:


_________ + _________ + _________ produces _________ + ___________


Fill in the ingredients for cellular respiration:


__________ + ___________ produces ___________ + ___________ + __________




True or False Enzymes are like ‘can openers’ in that they help with all the chemical reactions
(metabolism) in the cells.


What is the source of all of our energy that we take in?



Task 6: Calories: : http://www.choosemyplate.gov/myplate/index.aspx

• A calorie is:

• Insert a table or other type of date showing: Age groups’ daily calorie intake
• Ex: Ages 12-15 Boys: need 2000 calories per day Girls: need 1800 calories per day

• Track ONE DAY of all the calories that you took in. Use this website to track your ONE day: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/myplate/index.aspx


• Make an Excel table showing what you ate and how many calories each item was.

Item No. of Servings Grams of Fat Calories
Big Mac 1 28 530
McD Fries 1 22 450




Task 7: Biodegradable vs. Non-biodegradable

Define each term and give an example of something that represents a biodegradable substance and a non-biodegradable substance.




Task 8: Cell Reproduction:

Mitosis is the process by which cells divide to make more: sex cells or body cells. (Circle one)

True or False An egg cell is a body cell.

True or False A muscle cell is a body cell.

Meiosis is the process by which cells divide to make more: sex cells or body cells

True or False Meiosis is a process that make identical cells from the parent cell.

True or False Mitosis is the process that makes cells that only have ½ of their chromosomes that they
started with before dividing and reproducing.

Example: Human cells start with 46 chromosomes and end with half or 23
chromosomes.

True or False Meiosis takes place in the human sex organs called ovaries or testes.

Draw an image of a chromosome:


What is a chromosome?


How many chromosomes do humans have in their body cells?

How many chromosomes do human sex cells (sperm cells and egg cells) have?

What is a mutation?


True or False A cancer cell results from a mutation.

True or False Mutations can sometimes be beneficial or helpful.


How does SpongeBob (sponge) reproduce? Sexually or Asexually?




Explain how did killer bees come about? Prezi Task List Notes:

Name:
Period:


Background: Four organic compounds make up all living things. Define each of them:

1. carbohydrates:

2. lipids (fats):

3. proteins:

4. nucleic acids:

Task 1: List sources of the following:

• 3 carbohydrates:

• 3 lipids or fats:

• 3 proteins:

• 1 DNA or mRNA:

Task 2: Tell where in the body (organs) the below nutrients are broken down?

• Carbohydrates:
• Lipids or fats:
• Proteins:

Where is bile formed?
What does bile do?
What gland is it stored in?
Where is this gland connected to?

Task 3:

Define ‘diffusion’:


Give an example of diffusion of oxygen or carbon dioxide in the body:


Define ‘osmosis’:


Give an example of ‘osmosis’ in plant cells:


True or False Diffusion will stop once molecules are EQUAL in the two areas involved.

True or False Passive transport processes like diffusion and osmosis happens without using cell’s energy.

Sometimes, cells might have particles too big to diffuse in and out of the cell. They need to have something (transport proteins) to get them in and out of the cell membrane. This is known as ‘active transport’.

What is meant by the word ‘active’ in the term called active transport?



Task 4: Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration vs. Fermentation

Describe the similarities and differences of the processes known as photosynthesis, cellular respiration and fermentation by filling in the data table below:


Energy Processes: Photosynthesis Respiration Fermentation
Energy Source? Sun light Glucose Glucose
Occurs where? chloroplast mitochondria Cytoplasm
Reactants: Carbon dioxide and water Glucose and oxygen Glucose and oxygen
Products: Oxygen water Glucose, oxygen, ATP Lactic acid co2 alcohol and ATP



Task 5:

Define each term:

• Photosynthesis:

• Respiration:

• Fermentation:

Where does photosynthesis take place in a plant?

Where does respiration take place in an animal cell?

Where does fermentation take place in a cell?


Fill in the ingredients for photosynthesis:

Energy
Sun light + 6CO2+ 6H2O + produce + C 6, H12, O 6 + 6O2


Fill in the ingredients for cellular respiration:


6o2 + C6 H12 O6 + produces + Energy + 6CO2 + __________




True or False Enzymes are like ‘can openers’ in that they help with all the chemical reactions
(Metabolism) in the cells.


What is the source of all of our energy that we take in?



Task 6: Calories: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/myplate/index.aspx

• A calorie is:

• Insert a table or other type of date showing: Age groups’ daily calorie intake
• Ex: Ages 12-15 Boys: need 2000 calories per day Girls: need 1800 calories per day

• Track ONE DAY of all the calories that you took in. Use this website to track your ONE day: http://www.choosemyplate.gov/myplate/index.aspx


• Make an Excel table showing what you ate and how many calories each item was.

Item No. of Servings Grams of Fat Calories
Big Mac 1 28 530
McD Fries 1 22 450




Task 7: Biodegradable vs. Non-biodegradable

Define each term and give an example of something that represents a biodegradable substance and a non-biodegradable substance.




Task 8: Cell Reproduction:

Mitosis is the process by which cells divide to make more: sex cells or body cells. (Circle one)

True or false an egg cell is a body cell.

True or false a muscle cell is a body cell.

Meiosis is the process by which cells divide to make more: sex cells or body cells

True or False Meiosis is a process that make identical cells from the parent cell.

True or False Mitosis is the process that makes cells that only have ½ of their chromosomes that they
Started with before dividing and reproducing.

Example: Human cells start with 46 chromosomes and end with half or 23
Chromosomes.

True or False Meiosis takes place in the human sex organs called ovaries or testes.

Draw an image of a chromosome:


What is a chromosome?


How many chromosomes do humans have in their body cells?

How many chromosomes do human sex cells (sperm cells and egg cells) have?

What is a mutation?


True or false a cancer cell results from a mutation.

True or False Mutations can sometimes be beneficial or helpful.


How does SpongeBob (sponge) reproduce? Sexually or Asexually?




Explain how did killer bees come about? Where does respiration take place in a animal?
muscle cell. sunligh+6co2+6h2o+6o2+ What is a calorie?
A unit of energy.
Biodegradable vs. Non-biodegradable able to break down Not able to break down Mitosis is a process which a cell divides to make more: body Cells
Meiosis is a process which a cell divides to make more: Sex cells True or False: An egg cell is a body cell? False.
True or False: A muscle cell is a body cell? True
True or False: Meiosis is a process witch cells to divide to make identical cells? True
True or False: A cancer cell is results form a mutation. True True or False: Mitosis is the process which that makes cells only 1/2 of the chromosomes they are. False How many chromosomes does a human body cell have? 46
How many chromosomes does a human sex cell have? 23
Full transcript