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Topic #1

By: Hafsa Ali, Thea Daguison, and Marilyn Abraham
by

Marilyn Abraham

on 8 January 2013

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Transcript of Topic #1

Animal and Plant Form and Function: Homeostasis and Water Balance Maintaining a stable internal environment Homeostasis There are two types: Feedback Control Three components of homeostatic system: 1. Sensor: detects stress
2. Control Center: receives information from the sensor and sends a message to adjust the stress
3. Effector: receives the message from the control center and produces the response which reestablishes homeostasis 1. Negative Feedback
2. Positive Feedback Feedback Mechanisms in Thermoregulation Mammals regulate their body temperature by a complex negative feedback system that involves several organ systems Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Transpiration Stomata When two guard cells are turgid, the stomata are open. Abscisic acid (ABA): hormone that triggers closing of the stomata when there is a danger of excessive water loss. Factors which affect stomatal movement light
temperature
oxygen
carbon dioxide
potassium (K+)
water availability
mechanical shocks
hormones Guttation Photorespiration Different Adaptions Within Thermoregulation Insulation Circulatory Adaptation Process in which animals maintain homeostasis Insulation
Circulatory Adaptation
Cooling by Evaporative Loss
Behavioral Responses
Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production Cooling by Evaporative Loss Behavioral Responses Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production Reduces the flow of heat between an animal and its environmentIncludes feathers, fur, or blubber a major thermoregulatory adaptation in mammals and birds Aster Yellows Ectodermal Dysplasia Plants and Animals Diseases Aster Yellows
Ectodermal Dysplasia loss of chlorophyll in the leaf veins yellowing of leaves and sporadic bushy growth, stunts seed and fruit development
has no cure, so diseased plants should be removed immediately Parts of a Stomata Loss of water through the xylem cells, when stomata in leaves open for gas exchange.
Transpiration is essential, because it provides the “sucking” effect for water to travel up the xylem tissues. Unicellular vs. Multicellular When the response to a given action generates an effect that inhibits that action
Enables the body to maintain homeostasis by effecting changes in the body to maintain the proper "set point" System's output feeds its input, adding energy to the system and again increasing output
Strengthens the stimulus Loss of water in the form of liquid
Appears as single droplets of water Process of light-dependent uptake of molecular oxygen concomitant with release of carbon dioxide from organic compounds.
It allows plant cells to reduce the buildup of oxygen gas without opening stomata.
Initiated by the oxygenase
RUBISCO Vasodilation This is when heat is carried away from body through different cooling effects like panting or sweating. Vasoconstriction This has to do with social behavior or extreme examples such as migration or hibernation. Countercurrent Heat Exchanger In this adaptation, things animals do or specific tissues or processes within them work to keep their bodies warmer than the environment. This is a different arrangement of blood vessels which is important when it comes to heat loss in many endotherms. People who have this disorder don’t sweat as much or at all compared to the average person. This is due to their lack of sweat glands.

There is no specific treatment for this. However, there are little things the person can do to help keep a normal body temperature.
Multicellular Organism: With a sac body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials Unicellular Organism: A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm Diagram Endotherms These organisms use metabolic heat to keep body temperature warmer than the environment.
- Example: humans, birds, some fish, mammals, some reptiles Elevates blood flow in the skin and
therefore warms the skin Reduces blood flow and the transfer of heat These organisms gain heat from their surroundings (environment)
- Example: When the animal lays out in the sun or seeks out shade
They can handle more variation in internal temperatures than endotherms
- Example: fish, amphibians, snakes, turtles, lizards Ectotherms Most endotherms and ectotherms can control the amount of blood flow to change their body's heat level. Diagrams The Big Picture: Sweating Increase in body temperature leads to increased sweating which leads to decreased body temperature
Vasodilation occurs to allow heat trapped in the body to evaporate which allows the organism to cool down Plants perform transpiration to maintain homeostasis
Water is absorbed through the roots and water loss is regulated by the closing and opening of the stomata Evaporation helps control the rise in body temperature
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