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Transcript of World Explorers
By: Jennifer Propps
John Cabot founded Canada, mistaking it for Asia, during his 1499 voyage on the ship Matthew.Cobat and his crew sailed west and north under the belief that the route to Asia would be shorter from Northern Europe than Columbus's voyage along trade winds.Cobat landed in the East coast of North America.Cobat has been historically credited with being the first European to land in North America since the vikings, claiming the land for England. From there, Cabot explored the Canadian coastline and gave names to many of the islands and capes he found.his expeditions proved the existence of a shorter route across the northern Atlantic Ocean, which would later facilitate the establishment of other British colonies in North America.
Amerigo Vespucci was the first person to recognize North and South America as distinct continents that were previously unknown to Europeans, Asians, and Africans.He made multiple voyages, sailing the South American seas. On May 10, 1497, On his third (and most successful ) voyage, he discovered present-day Rio de Janeiro and Rio de la Plata. During this voyage, he came to the realization that they were looking at another continent entirely different from Asia ( their intentional destination) To justify his statement, he traveled by sailing south to within 400 miles of Tierra de Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America. This confirmed he was encountering a new continent that extended far further south than anyone suggested
During this time, a german map maker, Martin Waldseemuller, was working to create a new map. Waldseemuller designed his world map based on the writings of Amerigo Vespucci. He, as well as many scholars, were convinced that the New World was compromised of new continents. created a wood block world map called Carta Mariana, that contained the first ever drawing of a new continent to the West, which he named America. (in honor of Amerigo Vespucci.) Thousands of maps were printed and spread across Europe. People everywhere began to call the New World, America.
Christopher Columbus has been credited for opening up the Americas to European colonization in 1502 as well as blamed for the destruction of the native peoples of the islands he explored.
Columbus led his three ships - the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria - out of the Spanish port of Palos on August 3, 1492. His objective was to sail west until he reached Asia (the Indies) where the riches of gold, pearls and spice awaited. In what he thought was India, he landed on the eastern coast of North America, where he met the natives, mistakenly calling them Indians. His voyage created a period of cultural and biological exchanges between the New and Old Worlds. Exchanges of plants, animals, diseases and technology transformed European and Native American ways of life.The benefits of the Exchange went to the Europeans and eventually to the rest of the world, who would later on voyage across the Pacific Ocean to live in the newly colonized area.
"Amerigo Vespucci." Amerigo Vespucci. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2015. <http://www.historybits.com/amerigo.htm>.
Szalay, By Jessie. "Amerigo Vespucci: Facts, Biography & Naming of America." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 10 Jan. 2014. Web. 12 Jan. 2015. <http://www.livescience.com/42510-amerigo-vespucci.html>
"John Cabot." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2015.
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2015
"Christopher Columbus Discovers America, 1492." Christopher Columbus Discovers America, 1492. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Jan. 2015.
"The Columbian Exchange." The Columbian Exchange. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Jan. 2015.
James Cook discovered and charted New Zealand and Australia's Great Barrier Reef on his ship called the Endeavor, and later disproved the existence of the fabled southern continent "Terra Australis" His voyages also provided the first accurate map of the Pacific.
Cook joined the British Navy and at age 29, was promoted to ship's master. In 1768, he took command of the very first scientific expedition to the Pacific, taking along with him astronomer Charles Green and botanist Joseph Banks. In 1770,Cook discovered and charted New Zealand and the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. (It has since been credited as one of the world's most dangerous areas to navigate.)When he return to England, Cook was chosen to navigate and explore Antarctica. On this voyage, he charted present-day Tonga, Easter Island, New Caledonia, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, and disproved the existence of Terra Australis, a once fabled southern continent.
Today, James Cook's voyages are credited with helping guide future explorers, as well as providing the first accurate map of the pacific.
BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2015.
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2015.
Hernando de Cortez
Hernando De Cortez was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who defeated the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain.
In 1518, Cortés commanded an expedition to Mexico, with more than 500 men and 11 ships. In February of 1519, the expedition reached the Mexican coast.Cortez became allies with some native peoples he encountered, and with others he used deadly force to conquer Mexico. He conqured Tlaxacan and Cholula warriors, and then sought to take over the Aztec empire. He arrived in Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital, where he was invited into the home of the Aztec ruler Montezuma II. Cortés took Montezuma hostage and his soldiers raided the city. Cortés left the city after learning that Spanish troops were coming to arrest him for disobeying orders.After facing off against Spanish forces, Cortés returned to Tenochtitlán to find a rebellion in progress. The Aztecs eventually drove the Spanish from the city, but Cortés returned again to defeat them and take the city in 1521. The conquistadors lay the Aztec empire to waste, erasing the remains of the culture as best they could, scorching Tenochtitlán by fire, leveling its majestic temples. The rubble would make up the foundations of a new world, and the settlements for new people, who would have new trade routes, new land, resources, and aid in the widespread of Christianity.
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 15 Jan. 2015
"Colonization." Spanish in Mexico. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
"The Spanish Conquest (1519-1521)." : Mexico History. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2015.
Sir Francis Drake
English admiral Sir Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe in 1577-1578, helped defeat the Spanish Armada and was the most renowned seaman of the Elizabethan era.
Queen Elizabeth sent Francis Drake out against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of South America in November 1577. He was accompanied by two other men, John Wynter and Thomas Doughty. After raiding several Spanish settlements near the Azores, Drake took over command, which Doughty did not agree with. Tension grew between the two all the way across the Atlantic. Upon arriving the coast of Argentina, Drake sensed that Doughty was plotting a mutiny and had him arrested. After a brief trial, Doughty was convicted and beheaded. Drake took full command of the expedition, then led the fleet into the Strait of Magellan to reach the Pacific Ocean, then sailed up the coasts of Chile and Peru, and annihilated unprotected Spanish merchant ships full of gold and silver. they fled, and landed off the coast of California, claiming it for Queen Elizabeth.He then set sail across the Pacific, through the Indian Ocean and around Cape of Good Hope back to England, landing at Plymouth in 1580.
Between 1585 and 1586, relations between England and Spain grew worse. Queen Elizabeth gave Drake command of a fleet of 25 Spanish ships in a series of raids that captured several cities in North and South America, taking treasure and inflicting damage on Spanish morale.These acts prompted Spain’s King Philip II to invade England with the vast construction of an Armeda. In a preemptive strike, Drake conducted a raid on the Spanish city of Cadiz, destroying more than 30 ships and thousands of tons of supplies. He laughingly referred to this act as "singeing the king of Spain’s beard."
If he hadn't defeated the Spanish Armada, Britain would have become part of the Spanish Empire. Therefore, in later years, North America would have been part of the Spanish Empire.
"Francis Drake." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
English explorer Henry Hudson embarked on multiple sailing voyages that provided new information on North American water routes.
Hudson made four journeys during his career, during a time when countries and companies competed with each other to find the best ways to reach important trade destinations, especially Asia and India. In 1607, the Muscovy Company, an English firm, entrusted Hudson to find a northern route to Asia.Despite departing during the spring, Hudson found himself and his crew battling icy conditions ,which forced them retrun to england.
In 1609, Hudson joined the Dutch East India Company as a commander,with the objective of discovering a northern route to Asia by heading north of Russia, where he again encountered icy conditons.But he decided to flee back to England. So he decided to sail west to the Americas in search for a western passage to Asia. Crossing the Atlantic Ocean, Hudson and his crew reached land that July, coming ashore at what is now Nova Scotia, where they encountered and traded with the natives that lived there. they then travled down the North American coast, He then turned around and decided to explore New York Harbor. Around this time, Hudson and his crew clashed with some local Native Americans, where many if his crew members lost their lives. Hudson and his remaining crew traveled up the river that would later carry his name. (Hudson River)
On the way back to the Netherlands,The English authorities seized the ship and the Englishmen among the crew. Upset that he was exploring for another country, the English authorities banned Hudson from working with the Dutch. He was however still allowed to find a northwest passage.Hudson later found english investors to fund his next journey
abroad on the ship 'Discovery',Hudson left England in April 1610. He and his crew traveled along the southern tip of Greenland, and entered on what later became the Hudson strait.The exploration then reached another of his namesakes, the Hudson Bay. By this time, Hudson was at odds with many in his crew, who later casted him and other crew members out of the boat, where they later died of exposure near Hudson Bay.
While he never found his way to Asia, Hudson is still widely remembered as a determined early explorer. His efforts helped drive European interest in North America. Today his name can be found all around us on waterways, schools, bridges and even towns.
"Henry Hudson." Bio. A&E Television Networks, 2015. Web. 17 Jan. 2015.
Ferdinand Magellan led the first European voyage of discovery to circumnavigate the globe.
On Aug. 10, 1519, Magellan set sail with 270 men and five ships.From Spain, the fleet sailed to Brazil and then headed south, along the coast. they were searching for a water passage that would allow them to cross South America without passing Cape Horn.n Oct. 21, 1520, he finally found the passageway that would come to bear his name (strait of magellan).Sailing through it was treacherous: dangerous to navigate, freezing cold and foggy.It took the fleet over a month to pass through the 350-mile strait. After 38 days on the strait, the fleet finally emerged at the Pacific Ocean in November 1520.Magellan underestimated the size of the ocean, and the ships were unprepared for the journey. Many of his men either died of illness or starvation. Finally in March, the ships landed at Guam, where they stayed to replenish their food supplies before sailing out to the Phillipines. When he landed in Cebu,Magellan was overcome with religious zeal and decided to convert the natives to Christianity. Some of the natives agreed to convert, while others did not and the split caused problems in the population. The The Cebuans asked Magellan to join them in their fight against a neighboring group, the Mactan, agreed,and got struck by a poison arrow by the Mactans. Magellan died from the wound on April 27, 1521. After his death, Sebastian del Cano took command of the two remaining ships and led them to the Spice Islands, collected various spices, then headed back to Spain. In September 1522 they docked back in Seville.
Though Magellan did not make it around the world, he did lead the first expedition to do so.Mapping the strait proved invaluable to the European understanding of the world — as did the European discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the empirical proof that the world was round.
Szalay, By Jessie. "Ferdinand Magellan: Facts & Biography." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 23 Jan. 2014. Web. 18 Jan. 2015
Juan Ponce de Leon
Juan Ponce de León founded the oldest settlement in Puerto Rico and discovered Florida.In 1513 Ponce de León led a private expedition to Bimini from Puerto Rico, searching for gold and the fabled fountain of youth. In a month's time, he and his men landed on the coast of Florida instead. He and his men did not realize they were on the mainland of North America, and instead thought he had landed on another island. He named the region Florida because he discovered it at Easter time and because its vegetation was lush and floral.After exploring the coast, he returned to Puerto Rico, which he found roiling with a native uprising. Ponce de León soon left for Spain, where he was named military governor of Bimini and Florida and secured permission to colonize those regions.
1521, Ponce de León sailed again for Florida with two ships and 200 men, intent on settling the land.This time however, they were attacked by Native Americans, where De Leon was wounded by an arrow. He and his colonists fled and sailed to Cuba, where he soon died of the wound. the route which he took to travel to florida would later become a trade route, bringing in goods to and from Puerto Rico and Spain, who would later bring colonists and settle along the south coast.
Spanish explorer and conquistador Francisco Pizarro helped Vasco Núñez de Balboa discover the Pacific Ocean, and after conquering Peru, founded its capital city, Lima.
In 1513, Pizarro joined conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa in his march to the "South Sea," across the Isthmus of Panama. During their journey, Balboa and Pizarro discovered what is now known as the Pacific Ocean. In 1532, accompanied by his brothers, Pizarro overthrew the Inca leader Atahualpa and conquered Peru. Three years later, he founded the new capital city of Lima.
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2015.
Sir Walter Raleigh
In 1587 Sir Walter Raeigh explored North Carolina to present-day Florida, naming the region Virginia in honor of Elizabeth 'The Virgin Queen'. In 1587 Raleigh sent an ill-fated second expedition of colonists to Roanoke.
Elizabeth's successor, James I, distrusted and feared Raleigh, charged him with treason and condemned him to death, but commuted the sentence to imprisonment in the Tower in 1603.There Raleigh lived with his wife and servants, and wrote his History of the World. He was released in 1616 to search for gold in El Dorado in South America.Though he did not find this, he did explore about 400 miles of the valley of the River Orinoco in Venezuela. Against the king's undertaking to the Spanish, he invaded Spanish territory, forced to return to England without gold, and was arrested on orders of the king.His original death sentence for treason was invoked, and he was executed at Westminster.
Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2015.