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Copy of Carbon Compounds & Enzymes

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Laura Reames

on 24 August 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Carbon Compounds & Enzymes

Carbon Compounds
Organic Molecules
Biological Polymers
Organic Molecules
contain Carbon atoms
are made of smaller units that bond to form larger molecules.
energy is stored in the bonds that link these units together.
the amount of energy stored in the bonds varies with the type of molecule formed.
Not all organic molecules have the same amount of energy available for use by an organism.
CARBON has 4 valence electrons
It can bond w/ one another to make chains and cyclic structures
4 Different Types of Organic Molecules
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Nucleic Acids
Nucleic Acids
Sugars and starches
composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
basic carbohydrate is glucose (C6H12O6)
Simple sugars bond together to make larger, more complex carbohydrate molecules.
EX: Starch, glycogen and cellulose
Carbohydrates are important as an energy source for organisms.
FUNCTION: They are used to store energy for SHORT periods of time.
Monosaccharides – single sugar molecules
Galactose (component of milk)
Fructose (found in fruits)

Polysaccharides – large molecules formed by monosaccharides.
Starch (chain of glucose molecules)
Glycogen (animal starch, released from liver)
Cellulose (plant starch)
not soluble (insoluable in water)
fats, oils, waxes, steroids
composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen that bond to form FATTY ACIDS and GLYCEROLS
Lipids contain more energy per gram than carbohydrates or proteins, which explains why fats have a greater caloric value.

Long-term energy storage
Cushioning of vital organs & insultation of body
Major component of cell membrane.
AMINO ACIDS are composed of:
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur

Helps control muscle movement
Coorinates body activities
Speed up chemical reactions
Forms hair and nails
Moves substances throughout the body.
2 Types of Nucleic Acids
1. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) – contains the sugar “Ribose”

2. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) – contains “Deoxyribose”
Type of Protein

Proteins that act as biological catalyst.
- Catalysts speed up chemical reactions.
They work by lowering the activation energy.
They are very specific.
Enzyme names usually end in –ase.
Substrates – The reactants of enzymes-catalyzed reactions

Substrates bind to the enzyme at their active site temporarily.

It fits perfectly, like a “lock & key model”
Active Site
↑ concentration (amount) of enzyme = ↑ reaction rate

↑ concentration of substrate = ↑ reaction rate

Maintain optimal pH = ↑ reaction rate
Any other pH slows reaction rate down

↑ in temp = ↑ reaction rate*
*only to a point, after which the
enzyme is said to be denatured
(burnt) and no longer functions

Enzyme’s Reaction Rates
Carry and transmit genetic information
Composed of smaller units called nucleotides
Contains oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus
Full transcript