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The 20th Century

exploration of music in the 20th Century

Maribeth Crawford

on 30 November 2012

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Transcript of The 20th Century

The Twentieth Century Audio Technology Social Diversity Globalization Progress and uncertainty Modernist Traditional Music in the 20th Century Impressionism Expressionism * Advancements in technology
* Greater access to diverse music
* Portable music
* Cylinder disk invention
* Audiotape * Technological advances
* Larger cities
* Easier mobility between social classes
* American popular music
* WWI,WWII * Racial segregation
* Music unites * New ways of communication
* Global inspiration * Industrialization
* Development of weaponry
* Shift in world views * Anti-traditionalism
* Radical experimentation
* first phase- Debussy, Schoenberg, Stravinsky * Quality of suggesting
* Perception of an object In Art:

* Tiny brush strokes
* Effects of light
* Capturing a moment In Literature:

* Symbolists
* Verlaine, Mallarme, Rimbaud In Music:

* blurs harmonies, rhythm, and form
* sense of motion
* emphasis on timbre
* didn't call himself an impressionist Debussy's Voiles:

* means "sails"
* Timbre- non percussive piano
* Melody- short fragments
* Dynamics- mostly p or pp
* Rhythm- no direction
* Harmony- no tonal center
* Form- no direction * express extreme human feelings
* hysteria, nightmare, insanity In Art:

* clashing of harsh colors
* irregular shapes
* jagged lines In Literature:

* Sigmund Freud
* Unconscious drives
* Significance of dreams
* Central role of sexuality Arnold Schoenberg's "Columbine" from Pierrot Lunaire

* 21 songs total
* second song in group
* Commedia dell'arte
* Pierrot's lament
* Sprechstimme
* Atonality Igor Stravinsky The Rite of Spring:

* Ballet written in 1913
* Caused riots at the premier
* Fertility cults of prehistoric Slavic tribes Part I, "The Adoration of the Earth"
* no real story
* Stravinsky preferred to think of it as abstract
* fertility rites, virgin for sacrifice
* calls for a large orchestra * Polytonal Harmonies
* Pentatonic Melodies
* Irregular and Regular Rhythms
* ostinato
* Timbre and mega orchestra
* The Scenario American Popular Music Ragtime * emphasized rhythmic syncopation
* solo piano pieces, songs, and pieces for dance ensembles
* "ragging"
* precursor of jazz Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag
* Rhythmic Syncopation
* Hemiola
* Stride bass
* Sectional form Aaron Copland * born in Brooklyn in 1900
* wanted to write "American Music"
* Trained in the European tradition
* wrote traditional and Modernist music
* Lecturer and writer on music Nationalist agenda:

* used American folk and hymn tunes
* used American literature for the text in his vocal music
* Ambassador for American culture
* open score concept "Hoe Down" from Rodeo

* American West
* "Bonaparte's Retreat"
* Timbre- Smaller ensembles
* Dance Rhythms
* Rondo Electronic Music Chance Music Minimalism Second phase: * Economic depression of the 1920s
* Second World War
* Questioned features of musical tradition
* New Sound Materials
* John Cage, Philip Glass * Sound generators
* Magnetic tape
* Synthesizers
* Computers * Music elements are left to chance
* Roll the dice, Aleatory music
* Musique concrete John Cage:

* Facilitator between listeners and sounds
* Eliminate purpose
* Playing instruments in new ways
* Electronic music John Cage, Indeterminacy (1959)

* Electronic and chance music
* 90 brief stories by Cage
* Timbre Philip Glass:
* Minimalist composer
* studied at Julliard
* most known for his opera Einstein on the beach

Robert Wilson:
* director that worked with Wilson
* American avant-garde stage director * brief musical idea
* slow rate of change
* Einstein on the Beach Big Band Jazz Very Popular in the 1930s

Played from arrangements


brass vs. reed Duke Ellington:

* greatest American Jazz composer
* Jazz standards
* "Cotton Tail" Cotton Tail:

* Harmonic Changes
* Contrasting Textures
* Swing Rhythms
* Song Form Blues "blue notes"


Deep South roots * Blue notes

* Historic Blues Timbre

* 12 bar blues form
Full transcript