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12 Fitness Components

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Kristiaan Vallak

on 20 May 2015

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Transcript of 12 Fitness Components

12 fitness components
Power
Balance
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Anaerobic Endurance/Capacity
Aerobic Endurance/Capacity
Is a measure of how many times a
muscle
or
muscle group
can make a contraction.
Dynamic Strength
Explosive Strength
Is the ability to keep the body stable when still or moving by keeping the center of gravity (COG) over the base of support.
Anaerobic Endurance/Capacity is the ability for the body to work for a short period of time without the use of oxygen O²
It is when the body requires more oxygen than the heart can pump around: the heart cannot keep up with the blood required. Therefore the body must use the oxygen and nutrients (body’s food) stored in the blood. This means that the body is working without oxygen
So your body is working ‘without’ oxygen. This does not mean that your body stops breathing.

What happens is that it takes TIME for oxygen to enter your lungs, move into the blood stream, get pumped around the body and get to the working muscles.

This runner has just started off, and the heart has to catch up, meaning that she is working with anaerobic endurance/capacity
So this sprinter has just taken off, for the duration of her race her heart will be trying to pump the blood around her body so she has oxygen. Do you think by the 100m mark it would have caught up?
So this sprinter has just taken off, for the duration of her race her heart will be trying to pump the blood around her body so she has oxygen. Do you think by the 100m mark it would have caught up?
Aerobic Endurance/Capacity is a measure of how long you can work using oxygen stored in your blood, this is your Aerobic Capacity.

People with a high Aerobic Endurance/Capacity often have a strong heart (particularly the left Ventricle). This is because the Left Ventricle is the last chamber before the blood is pumped out into the body. The stronger the ventricle, the more blood it can pump out per beat.

Aerobic Endurance/Capacity's panicle is VO²MAX test. These are difficult.
But generally Aerobic Endurance/Capacity is classed with medium - to - high intensity workouts/activities.








Flexibility
Is the measure of the Range of Movement (ROM) around a joint. Flexibility changes from person to person.
Speed
How fast a
muscle
or
muscle group
can contract once or repeatedly
in a given amount of time.
Body Composition
Is a measure of how much of your body is made up of muscle compared with how much is made up of fat.
There are two types of muscular strength, it is important that you know both of them.
Dynamic Strength is the amount of force that can be exerted repeatedly by a muscle in movement.
Explosive Strength is the amount of force that can be exerted in one quick, powerful contraction.
Pick the picture that is explosive and dynamic strength...
Reaction Time
The time it takes to respond to a stimulus.
Coordination
Is the ability to use two or more parts of the body at the same time.
Agility
The ability to move and change direction quickly while remaining in control.
The ability to combine strength with speed, to perform a strong contraction very quickly.
1.Name and find the best picture you can to explain both types of strength.

2.What is the difference between aerobic capacity and anaerobic capacity?

3.Define body composition.

4.Who is the best football team in AFL?
1. Name and find the best picture you can to explain both types of strength.

2. What is the difference between aerobic capacity and anaerobic capacity?

3. Define body composition.

4. Who is the best football team in AFL?
Identify the fitness components within the NSW police fitness testing
Short, high intensity sports like long jump or triple jump work mainly off Anaerobic Capacity/Endurance. This is because the athlete requires a high burst of energy very quickly.
Similarly sports that require long distance activates can also use Anaerobic Capacity/Endurance if certain factors come into play.
For example this swimmer has to hold his breath. This means that because he holds his breath for short periods of time his body has to use the oxygen stored in his blood stream.
This means that he is working Anaerobically.
It also depends on the type of activity.
• A 50 meter freestyle swimmer will use more Anaerobic Capacity/Endurance compared to a 1 500 meter freestyle swimmer.

A rowing race is done over 2km. Therefore it requires a high level of muscle endurance because the muscles and muscle groups are required to make multiple contractions over a set period of time.
If you are short - generally you have better flexibility than taller people
If you are a girl - generally you have better flexibility than boys (at your age).
If you are injured - generally you have less flexibility than an uninjured person
There are 3 main ways to increase flexibility (stretching)

Static Stretching
Dynamic Stretching
Ballistic Stretching
Static Stretching is considered obsolete as it has been proven to have no direct relation to injury prevention.
It is done to encourage people to participate in the warm up’s and cool down’s in a sport setting.

Static Stretching is however useful for rehabilitation of injuries.

Dynamic stretching is completing the main actions that you will use in your sports or high intensity movements that you are going to participate in.

Dynamic stretching involves repeated movements until the muscles are warm and the blood is flowing around the body.


In a PE class if we are going to play basketball or netball we might play a warm up game of chaos.
This game involves running, throwing, catching. It starts off slow (as you get to know the rules) and increases in tempo as the game goes on.

Ballistic stretching is considered highly dangerous and therefore is illegal in schools
(and should not be done under any circumstances).

There are two forms of ballistic stretching. They are
unassisted
and
assisted
.

Unassisted ballistic stretching:
Is where you take the muscles to their point of resistance.
Once there you bounce slowly lengthening the muscle.

Assisted ballistic stretching:
Where you take the muscles to their point of resistance. Once there you get a partner to
push, pull or strain the muscle with excessive force.


The following video is confronting and you do not have to watch it if you don’t want to. It goes for 1 minute.
Sports often require athletes to have a small body composition, however there are a few sports that require athletes to have a large body composition. For example.
There are many different ways to measure your body composition. You have normal home weight scales, high and weight graphs, skin fold tests as well as other ways. However all of these are fairly inaccurate or take years of practice to give an accurate reading.
The most accurate way to measure body composition is a process of underwater weighing. This is highly specialised, and expensive so they are generally at elite sporting venues such as the AIS or university’s.

Coordination is one of the most difficult fitness components to train. People have a very short time in their lives to develop the neural pathways in their brain when they are young. The timeframe is between 0 and 5 years.
What you are about to see is four female divers from the 10meter platform. One of the disciplines from this platform is to do an introverted dive (they do this by doing a handstand on the edge of the platform).
Look at how each diver has achieved their handstand - they are all slightly different.
Each individual achieves balance in their own way. It’s like a fingerprint – unique to you.

Class activity.

Time to check your Aerobic Endurance/Capacity.

You are going to do a very simple test to give you a guide as to your Aerobic Endurance/Capacity.

Instructions:
1. You are going to take your breath fully out when instructed.
2. When your teacher sais so take 1 brig breath in and hold it.
3. Without breathing out when told to take another breath in and hold it.
4. Keep in time with the teachers counting, the people that can do this the longest will generally have the highest Aerobic Endurance/Capacity.

Class Activity:

We are going to try an activity that demonstrates explosive strength.

These people are going to participate in a push up, however they are going to complete the push up without their legs/feet touching the ground. Because of the change in they way they do the push up they will have to work together and each apply explosive strength at the same time.

Class Activity:

We are going to demonstrate reaction time with 1 volunteer.

The stimulus is going to be presented to the volunteer in 3 different ways.
1. Normal, volunteer looking at stimulus.
2. Normal, volunteer not looking at stimulus until cue
3. Difficult, volunteer not looking at stimulus until cue, stimulus presented under difficult circumstances.
References
Health and Physical Education, 'Jump Start 9 & 10', pages 264 - 270. Cambridge University Press, first published 2007, reprinted 2008
Human Physiology 'from cells to systems' sixth edition, page 495. 2007 Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Exercise Physiology 'Theory and application to fitness and performance' sixth edition, page 6-7 & 443-444. 2007 McGraw-Hill Inc.
Biomechanics of sport and exercise, second edition. page 133, diagram 133f. 2005 Human Kinetics
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