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Experimental Research Method (CA112)
Transcript of Experimental Research Method (CA112)
is a methodical procedure
carried out with the goal of
verifying, falsifying, or establishing
the validity of a hypothesis. Experimentation is also used to test existing theories or new hypotheses in order to support or disprove them.
Experimentation is a research method in which one or more variables are manipulated and the outcome / effect of that manipulation on other variables is observed.
Experimental methods are commonly applied to determine relationships or to quantify the magnitude of response of a variable. Jessica Naval TYPES OF EXPERIMENT: 1. Controlled Experiments
2. Natural Experiments
3. Field Experiments DISADVANTAGES 1. Artificiality: The experiment is not typical of real life situations.
2. A major difficulty with the experimental method is demand characteristics.
(Demand characteristics are all the cues which convey to the participant the purpose of the experiment.)
3. The experimental method has a history of using biased or unrepresentative sampling. 4. It has already been noted that a strength of the experimental method is the amount of control which experimenters have over variables. However it must also be noted that it is not possible to completely control all variables.
5. A very major problem with the experimental method concerns ethics. FOUR
STEPS: ADVANTAGES 1. Experiments are the only means by which cause and effect can be established. 4. It is also worth noting that an experiment yields quantitative data (numerical amounts of something) which can be analyzed using statistical tests. FORMING A The first step is to identify an area
of interest and develop a hypothesis
that can then be tested. HYPOTHESIS Step 2: DESIGNING A STUDY & The second step is to select the
research methods that will be used
and then collect the data. COLLECTING DATA ANALYZING THE DATA & Step 3: After designing the study and collecting the data, it is time to examine the
information and draw conclusions about
what has been found. REACHING CONCLUSIONS Step 4: SHARING THE FINDINGS (Sometimes the independent variable is thought of as the cause and the dependent variable as the effect.) 2. It allows for precise control of variables. 3. Experiments can be replicated. ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES SOURCES: Devine, Betsy. Fantastic realities: 49 mind journeys and a trip to Stockholm. Page 62. Wilczek, Frank. World Scientific. 2006.
Griffith, W. Thomas. The Physics of Everyday Phenomena: A Conceptual Introduction to Physics. Page 3. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 2001.
http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=150 Most experiments use two kinds of variables: 1. Independent variable - manipulated by the experimenter.
- represent the inputs or causes. 2. Dependent variable - is what you measure in the experiment and what is
affected during the experiment.
- represents the output or effect. 1. Controlled Experiments - compares the results obtained from an experimental
sample against a control sample.
- one aspect's effect is being tested (the independent
variable). 2. Natural Experiments - Natural experiments are observational studies and
are not controlled. 3. Field Experiments - Field experiments are made in order to draw a
contrast with the experiments, which enforces
control by testing a hypothesis in the artificial and
highly controlled setting. Thesis: 1. Before the start of the study, the students were given a pretest on Environmental Attitude
and a teacher-made test focused on the environment.
2. Members of the experimental group were asked to submit a one-page personal journal
based on the issues aired in the news program. The journal was named “Kalikasan
4. A bulletin board was set up so the group could express creatively their ideas and
understanding about the environmental issues.
5. Two classes were taught by the teacher-researcher everyday on the control group. While
the experimental group's Monday schedule is reserved for the discussions of the issues
aired in the Radyo Kalikasan.
6. After the duration, the same tests (Environmental Attitude & the teacher-made test) were
given to the two groups. Hypothesis: DATA GATHERING Effects of Radyo Kalikasan
program on student's environmental knowledge and attitude by Ruel A. Amoranto "Will students attitude be fostered effectively
and positively towards the school environment
if they are asked to listen to a recommended
radio news program?" Radyo Kalikasan will help raise student's awareness on environmental issues, build their knowledge of ecological principles, and help them develop positive environmental attitudes. DATA GATHERING Instruments used: A validated attitude scale (Rabago, 1992), consisting of twenty positive and negative items which describe the student’s feeling or disposition towards the environment rated on a 4-point scale.
A teacher-made test based on environmental concepts and issues. Procedures: • Data were collected using the scores obtained from the two
groups in their pre- and post- attitude scale scores from the
• The mean of each group was computed to determine the
experimental and control groups’ environmental knowledge and
• "Pearson r" was used to determine the relationship between
environmental knowledge and attitude.
• Scores of the experimental group were compared with the scores
of the control group, to determine significant effect of listening to
Radyo Kalikasan. DATA REPORTING The posttest scores of the experimental group in the teacher-made test is greater than those of the control group.
The posttest scores of the experimental group is only a little higher than those of the control group in the attitude scale.
There is a positive correlation between environmental knowledge and environmental attitudes of the environmental group. DATA REPORTING Findings of the study: Treatment of data: Radio News Program focused on the environment and delivered in Filipino language increases environmental knowledge.
Said Radio News Program improves the environmental attitudes of the two groups.
There is a positive correlation between environmental knowledge and environmental attitude as revealed by the "Pearson r". DATA ANALYSIS Conclusion: