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How hydrocarbons are present in our daily life?

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Jorge Perez Gonzalez

on 27 April 2016

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Transcript of How hydrocarbons are present in our daily life?

Introduction
During this presentation we are going to explain the following topics

We use the organic chemistry in many ways!
We use the organic chemistry in gasoline, medicines, shampoos, perfumes and plastic.

We use the organic chemistry every day eveywhere!

Even in the food we eat we can find carbohydrates, fats etc.
PETROLEUM
Which ones are the main refineries in Mexico?
Refineries
in
Mexico

Petroleum Refining
How hydrocarbons are present in our daily life?

Jorge Isaac Perez Gonzalez 1804122
Luis Angel Martinez Gallegos 1809954
Alejandro Villareal Rodriguez
Ramón Eduardo Torres García 1811254
Aldo Damián Moya Cázares 1794020
Nicolás Tomás Tremillo 1803085

Ms. Victoria Jurado

Group: 216

"Petroleum and Hydrocarbons"





Organic Chemistry
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compunds
Carbon play an important role because many carbon atoms may bond together to give a vast array of molecular compunds
The carbon electronic configuration is the following: [He] 2s2 2p2
A carbon atom has four electrons in its outermost valence shell. So, it needs four more electrons to complete its octet.
Characteristics of the carbon atom
Catenation is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains. Catenation occurs most readily in carbon, which forms covalent bonds with other carbon atoms to form longer chains and structures.
The Lewis structure shows four groups around the carbon atom. This means four hybrid orbitals have formed. In order to form four hybrid orbitals, four atomic orbitals have been mixed.
Formulas in Organic Compunds
Molecular formula
The molecular formula is based on the actual makeup of the compound. Although the molecular formula can sometimes be the same as the empirical formula, molecular compounds tend to be more helpful.
C2H6O or C8H16O2
Structural and Condensed formula
A structural formula displays the atoms of the molecule in the order they are bonded.
Condensed structural formulas show the order of atoms like a structural formula but are written in a single line to save space and make it more convenient and faster to write out.
C5 H12= CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
C6 H14= CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH3
Petroleum Origin
More than 4000 years ago, according to Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, asphalt was used in the construction of the walls and towers of Babylon; there were oil pits near Ardericca (near Babylon), and a pitch spring on Zacynthus.
Petroleum Composition
Petroleum includes only crude oil, but in common usage it includes all liquid, gaseous, and solid hydrocarbons. Under surface pressure and temperature conditions, lighter hydrocarbons methane, ethane, propane and butane occur as gases, while pentane and heavier ones are in the form of liquids or solids.
Fractional destillation process
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize. It uses distillation to fractionate.
Fractional Desillation Video
Fractions and Usages
The six Pemex refineries produce liquid gas, gasoline, diesel, kerosene and other fuels. The state oil giant is expanding its refining capacity by building a second oil refinery, Refinería Bicentenario, in Tula (Hidalgo). Expected to cost around 10 billion dollars in total, it will have the capacity to process 300,000 barrels of crude a day and is expected to be operational sometime in 2016.
Importance of PetroChemistry
The process of refining crude oil leads to the production of a number of by products which are classified as petroleum products. These products are present in our daily trivial things to the most significant things available. The uses of these products are so significant that it is simply impossible to live life without it.


Organic compounds
Hydrocarbons
Alkaline
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is a saturated hydrocarbon. Alkanes consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and all bonds are single bonds.
In organic chemistry, an alkyne is an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing at least one carbon—carbon triple bond. The simplest acyclic alkynes with only one triple bond and no other functional groups form a homologous series with the general chemical formula CnH2n−2.
Alkynes
Aromatics
Aromatics, so called because of their distinctive perfumed smell, are substances derived from crude oil and, in small quantities, from coal. Aromatics are hydrocarbons, organic compounds that consist exclusively of the elements carbon and hydrogen – without which life would not be possible on Earth.
Physical properties
of hydrocarbons
Alkanes
alkanes only consist of single bonds
The first four alkanes are gases at room temperature
They are virtually insoluble in water
Alkenes

contain a carbon-carbon double bond
Alkenes are lighter than water
The boiling point of each alkene is very similar to its equivalent alkane
Alkynes
If it has triple bond, it is an alkyne.
Alkynes have a slightly higher boiling point
The acidity of terminal alkynes compared to alkenes and alkanes are stronger.

Aromatics
Only those with a benzene ring
They are non polar
Insoluble in water
liquid at room temperature
six carbon ring compound with three alternating double bonds
Main properties and applications of hydrocarbons
Properties
Hydrocarbons are non-polar. 
are less dense than water (density is less than 1.0 g/mL). So they float on top of water.
reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. 

Applications
heating and motor fuel applications
the use of propane in gas barbecues, lanterns, etc.
organic solvents, cleaners, and transport fuels.
jet fuel, diesel fuel and heating oil.
The hydrocarbons are the most used organic compunds. They are used in products that we use in our daily life and that are really necessary. But their is another concern, they have a great impact in the enviroment. They are very imporatnt for us cause we used them at the daily life but we have to remember that they cause effects in the enviroment so we can´t over used them. It is important for us to find other ways of resources that are ecofriendly so we don´t have problems with the enviroment. We should concern about the use of resources cause they are not forever and someday they will run out
CONCLUSION
Nicolas-This topic was very interesting and helpful for me because now I know more about hydrocarbons. Most importantly because they are part of my life and are very important because without hydrocarbons, cars wouldn't exist.
Alex-I think this topic was important because I understand how hydrocarbons help us in our daily life. I understand that without hydrocarbons cars wouldn't exist because they need to have it and many other things too
Aldo-This topic was a good lesson for every student, mainly because we practically live with them, and it is important for everyone to know what everything we use in everyday life is made from.
Ramon-This work is very useful because it let us understand the importance of certain materials that surround us, also, this work allows us to work as a team
Jorge- It is important to know that the hydrocarbons are something that are present in everything we do, for example the plastics etc. Maybe we think that is boring or something like that , but with this topic we also can improve the usages of the hydrocarbon, better know as crude oil. The crude oil as we know, is a nonrenewable recourse, and that's why we need to know all of it, because in the future we're going to need to get a new source of energy.
Luis-this topic Is very important because we realize the importance of the hydrocarbons but we also get to know how they cause a harmful effect in the environment and how can we stop that.
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