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Probabilistic Approaches in Fire Safety Engineering workshop @ Edinburgh, July 2013

Presented at the 2013 Probabilistic Approaches in Fire Safety Engineering workshop which took place at The University of Edinburgh

Cristian Maluk

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Probabilistic Approaches in Fire Safety Engineering workshop @ Edinburgh, July 2013

One of the following methods should be provided:

Method A: Add an extra reinforcement mesh.

Method B: Demonstrate (by local experience or by testing) that no spalling of concrete occurs under fire exposure.

Method C: Add protective layers.

Method D: Include 2 kg/m3 of monofilament propylene fibres.
Moving away from the status quo
BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering
Moving away from the status quo
Probabilistic Approaches in Fire Safety Engineering Workshop
BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering
The University of Edinburgh
11 July 2013
Cristián Maluk Zedán
The University of Edinburgh
Radiant panels
Loading rig
Linear motion system
thermal energy!
BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering
High-end, sustainable concrete design...

High performance SCC (110 MPa)

CFRP tendons (non-corrosive, high strength)

Slender structural elements (45mm thick)

High prestress conditions (12 MPa)

2 kg/m3 of PP fibres
Furnace Test
Plate Thermometer ('90s)


"Adiabatic Temperature"

Gas, walls, burners, are all at one single temperature!!
Tibor Harmathy
Philip Thomas
Margaret Law
Kunio Kawagoe
Mechanical loading
Replicate mechanical conditions near the anchorage zone

Thermal loading
Replicate the thermal conditions of the furnace test using radiant panels

Size of the test specimen
Identical cross section as the full size element
500 mm in length
Inverse Heat Transfer Model
The Concept
Experimental Validation of the Inverse Heat Transfer Model
Inverse Model
What now?
Heat-induced concrete spalling

Polypropylene (PP) fibres

PP fibre type (cross section, diameter) and dosage

With and without compressive stress

11 concrete mixtures

30 days

Design for “real” fire (or fires!!)

Move away from a pass-fail testing environment

Develop of building materials/products at a fraction of the cost

“Understand” materials’ and systems’ behaviour in fire
H-TRIS is a tool…

Experimental studies with statistical confidence

Realistic and/or proper boundary thermal conditions

High repeatability

Low economical and temporal cost
Luke Bisby, Giovanni Terrasi,
Michal Krajcovic, José Luis Torero,
Guillermo Rein, etc.

Technical and Research Staff

PhD and MEng students


There is a ‘potential value’ of integrated fire safety engineering

Fire safety can be a design generator (or variable) and not any more an accepted constraint throughout the design process

Performance based design / Integrated design / Probabilistic risk assessment

Move away from the pass/fail fire resistance environment

Development of rational, explicit design tools
60 min
16.36 kJ/m2
7.9 min
10.6 min
16.3 min
1.61 kJ/m2
2.22 kJ/m2
3.64 kJ/m2
Potential to benefit the modern building design process...
Modern building
design environment
Furnace Tests
Heat-induced concrete spalling
Longitudinal splitting cracks and loss of bond
3m long span
Cold overhangs
Simply supported
Four-point bending (decompression at the tension fibre in the central region)
200x45 m2 cross section
Standard fire resistance test...
Status Quo
EN 1992-1-2:2004
Very complex
"...the risk of spalling shall be taken into account."

"Explosive spalling shall be avoided, or its influence on performance requirements (R and/or EI) shall be taken into account."

"Properties and recommendations are given for fire exposure corresponding
to standard temperature-time curve only."
Full transcript