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GMO malaria-resistant mosquitoes
Transcript of GMO malaria-resistant mosquitoes
A Genetically Modified Organism is an organism that has had its DNA altered using the the insertion of a modified gene from a different organism. This process of taking DNA a combining it to make a modified version is called Recombinant DNA technology
Recombinant DNA Technology is a variation of techniques used to alter the genetic material
This is accomplished by joining two different strands of DNA from different organisms
This changes the gene sequence and by doing that, modifies the phenotype of the organism itself because different proteins, or more or less of the same proteins, are coded for after the modifications Let's start out with a intro to GMOs Pros and Cons of Malaria resistant Mosquitoes Cons
Once released, the long term affects are unknown because this amount of genetically modifies animals have never been released into a natural setting
Other animals populations could be affected by overpopulation
Mosquitoes population could grow to uncontrollable levels
Malaria parasites might adapt to new host, possibly starting new disease, which we know nothing about.
Weak malaria-resistant mosquitoes won't survive Pros
Mosquitoes modified to be malaria resistant could out survive normal mosquitoes
A step towards managing malaria financially and trying to get rid of it
Could end or minimize malaria as a global problem
Not destroying a species, but destroying the disease
Safe procedure Now onto the methods It may look like, there're more cons than pros, but the pros are much more affective, while the cons are smaller problems 4 5 5 1, 10 1, 8 Why is this important?
A child dies in sub-Saharan Africa EVERY 30 SECONDS
There is no vaccine
Medical care for pre and post infection is too expensive for most victims
The best solution, besides genetically modifies mosquitoes, is dousing mosquito netting with insect repelent 5 How malaria works
Female mosquitoes pick up one of five types of Plasmodium parasite on another organism
Next animal she feeds on, is infected by the malaria parasite
300 million people are infected each year by this tragic disease 6 What they do: Tweak the gene in the the immune system that controls a signaling protein, Akt
Akt controls SM1 peptide
This stops the malaria parasite from developing
They tweak the Akt gene so more Akt is produced and the immune system is strengthened
However Akt is also involved in the life span of mosquitoes so this tweak shortens it 3, 5, 6 Ways to change the DNA: Here are some ways the scientists could modify the gene Transformation:
add restriction enzymes to cut out desired gene sequence then use recombinant DNA technology to combine the "sticky" ends using the adhesive DNA Ligase
This produces a new DNA sequence that codes for different proteins or a different number of proteins
Then polymerase chain reaction is conducted so there are thousands of copies of that new
Then the bacteria is injected into cell colonies and injects its modified DNA into the nucleus of the foreign cells
Other methods are: gene gun, non-bacterial transformation, and other variations 7, 8, 9 http://www.voanews.com/english/news/health/Mosquitoes-Genetically-Modified-to-Prevent-Malaria-136594818.html
http://gogreennow5.blogspot.com/2011/04/gmo-mosquitoes-make-their-mark.html Other sites to visit for more information: 13 12 Works Cited:
1."http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/plantsci/plsc111/2006/GMO.pdf." Genetically Modified Organisms. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/plantsci/plsc111/2006/GMO.pdf>.
2. Bland, Eric. "Malaria-Proof Mosquito Created: Discovery News." MALARIA-PROOF MOSQUITO CREATED . Discovery Communications, LLC, 15 7 2012. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://news.discovery.com/tech/malaria-proof-mosquito.html>.
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5. Layton, J.. "GM Mosquitoes." Can genetically modified mosquitoes wipe out malaria?. N.p., 2011. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/genetic/gm-mosquito.htm>.
6. . "Insecticide Resistance Threatens Malaria Prevention Efforts ." Insecticide Resistance Threatens Malaria Prevention Efforts . WebMD, LLC, 2011. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/748215>.
7. . "Transformation-DnaTube.com-Scientific Video And Animation Site." Transformation. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://www.dnatube.com/video/997/Transformation>.
8. Kuure-Kinsey, Matthew. "An introduction to Recombinant DNA." The Basics of Recombinant DNA . N.p., 2000. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/Projects00/rdna/rdna.html>.
9. . "Genetic Engineering Methods." Genetic Engineering Methods. N.p., 2000. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://library.thinkquest.org/C004367/be9.shtml>.
10. . "The Free Dictionary." Genetically Modified Organisms. Farlex, Inc, 2012. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/genetically modified organism>.
11. . "BBC News - Malaria-proof mosquito engineered ." Malaria-proof mosquito engineered . BBC, 16 7 2010. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10654599>.
12. . "The Autism Omnibus: The difference between real scientists and crank scientists : Respectful Insolence." The Autism Omnibus: The difference between real scientists and crank scientists. ScienceBlogs LLC, 2011. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://scienceblogs.com/insolence/2007/06/the_autism_omnibus_the_difference_betwee.php>.
13. . "Picasa Web Albums." Picasa Web Albums. Google, 2011. Web. 15 Apr 2012. <http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/exZtoRw6jTOtxoZW5kYvTw>.