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Albert Kolen

on 13 April 2015

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Transcript of Passchendaele

Allies in Passchendaele
The objective of Passchendaele, the allies (British Empire) had to break through the German defenses, taking the Town of Passchendaele. After this, the Allies could launch a decisive attack on the Belgian channel ports, which were vital to the German war machine.
Canadian War Propaganda
Canadians taken the wounded
back to Poperinge
Canadians In The Battle
Canada is the country that actually won the battle! The allied forces launched an "all-out" offensive on the German forces, the Australians almost completely failed the attempt, a few British regiments succeeded. Canada lost 16,500 men in the offensive, though the Canadian forces took Passchendaele and the Germans gave the Canadians a nickname... the "Storm Troopers", as the
Germans have "Sturmtruppen" which were trained to break through
enemy lines.
A Canadian soldier's dugout, this would be his shelter in the trenches.
The British In Passchendaele
The British played a big role in WWI, mainly because Canada and Australia were Common Wealth countries, because they were part of the British Empire (which split apart after 1945). They supplied
rifles (the Lee Enfield No.1 Mark 3) and ammunition (.303 British). Also, they developed tactics used in the war.
The soldiers would be knee deep, even waist deep in mud their whole time in the trenches.
Australians in Passchendaele
The Australians were like Canada, only in the war because Britain was. Like Canada, they are a Common Wealth country, meaning they belonged to the British Empire.
Australian soldiers taking
German prisoners
Germans in the War
Germany (along with the Austrian-Hungarian) were on the opposing side of the Allies, known as the Axis. The Germans had younger soldiers then the Allies, some German soldiers had made Allied soldiers feel young. The German forces declared war on Russia after Austria and Hungary declared war on Serbia. They invaded Belgium, and that brought Britain into the war.
German soldiers in a cleverly and well built trench.
Trench Warfare
Allied Trenches German Trenches

Allied trenches were not as good as
German trenches. Why? Because the
Allies didn't have as much time to dig
in. The hard clay that made up the walls
was held up by bits of wood and
strands of barbed wire, basically anything
they could find, The trenches were
arranged in a zig-zag formation so if
a shell hit the trench, it wouldn't effect
the rest of the trench.
German Trenches were impressive in structure, they were lined with cement, the side facing the
Allied trenches was thicker than the back of the trench. So if their trench was taken then it would be easier to break the cement on the backside of the trench.
Both sides fought in trenches. A long and thin stretch of land that was dug out and soldiers would use this for shelter.
Trench diagram

Allied Tactics
Aside from trenches, these are the tactics used by Allied forces

"Over The Top"
This was a term used in WWI when an attack order was issued. Soldiers would go "over the top" or get out of the trenches and charge enemy lines.
The Whistle
When a whistle was blown by an Officer, that would indicate
that an attack order was issued.
Different squads had different
Officers, when the whistle was blown by the Officer of a squad, they would go over the top.
British soldiers ordered to go "over the top".
German Tactics
These were German soldiers that were
trained to infiltrate or "storm" enemy
trenches. The Canadians were given this
nickname because they broke through
German lines.
Gas Attacks
The name sounds bad enough, especially for the people who were attacked. The Germans used Chlorine and tear gas, as well as "mustard gas" (it was yellow and it burned everything it touched)
Artillery Bombardment
As the name suggests, the Germans would bombard
a place they were going to attack before attacking.
As was seen in Verdun (1916, France) when Germany
bombarded Verdun with over 1 million artillery shells.
Sulfur Mustard, or mustard gas... It is sulfur.
Commonly known as "gas masks", because of German gas attacks,
respirators became vital to soldiers in the war.
A small box respirator
The respirator used by the Allies in WWI.
It came with a fabric satchel that would store
the actual filter so it wouldn't get in the way.
No Man's Land
A commonly known term when it comes to WWI, "No Man's Land" is the land between the opposing forces. Riddled with barbed wire and craters from artillery shells, as well as debris. This would be a horrible place to run across in WWI.
No Man's Land of Passchendaele
Ypres, Flanders
Flanders or the "Flemish Region" is where is Ypres (i-pers) though is an area of Flanders where Passchendaele is.
A museum dedicated to the war in Flanders'.
The Christmas Truce
When you think of war, you think of death and fighting, of course this was part of it, but soldiers in WWI noted that the soldiers they were fighting were still
and on Christmas day, the fighting stopped.
The soldiers would meet in No Man's Land, they would exchange greetings and Christmas wishes, sometimes even exchanged gifts! They acted as if there wasn't even a war going on. They would play soccer and they would just enjoy Christmas as much as they could.
British Empire
Canada's old flag, as they were still a young country in 1917
The British Commonwealth
If you don't know already what the British Commonwealth is, I'm gonna tell you...
The British Commonwealth consists of most of Africa, South East Asia, and some Middle East countries. They are the former British Colonies. The United States does not count because they won Independence in the US Revolutionary War.
The most recognizable Common Wealth countries are...
South Africa
New Zealand
Afghanistan could have been a Commonwealth, but like America, they won independence.
Wikipedia as well as google for specific information and pictures
Though Canadians took the Town of
Passchendaele, the German forces
launched a counter attack and the
Canadians lost the town, it was taken
How WWI started
A huge part of WWI becoming a world war was truces and alliances. Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia after the heir to Austro-Hungary's throne, Franz Ferdinand, was assassinated. Russia declared war on Austro-Hungary because of their alliance with Serbia. Germany, who was fulfilling their own imperialistic desires, declared war on Russia because of their alliance with Austro-Hungary. When Germany declared war on Russia, France declared war on Germany because of an alliance they had with Russia. Because Germany invaded Belgium, the British declared war on Germany, and because of them being part of the British Empire, most Common wealth countries declared war on Germany. America joined the war in 1917 on the Allies side to help end the war. Japan was on the Allies' side because America promised them land and and because of they're recent experiences with America in the 1800s (Their friendliness with each other ended when Japan bombed Pearl Harbour in 1941.)
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