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Transcript of Macromolecules
(Triglycerides) Glycerol Fatty acids Ester linkage Unsaturated fatty acid chain Found in plants corn oil, olive oil, peanut oil, etc. Hydrogenation Saturated fatty acid chain Found in animals butter (milk fat), lard (pig fat), etc. linked to antherosclerosis high concentrations Structural component Honeycomb Beeswax Waterproofing Plant surfaces Cutin Carbon rings Fatty acids Alcohols Nucleotides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Major energy carrier cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Adenosine phosphates messenger in hormone regulations Nitrogenous bases Coenzymes Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) Phosphodiester bonds Nucleotide polymers single helix double helix hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ribonucleic acid (RNA) pentose sugars ribose deoxyribose coding for protein production protein code transport ribosomes protein synthesis Amino Acids 1 subunit = a residue amphiprotic 20 different amino acids in living organisms 8 cannot be synthesized in humans called "essential" amino acids amino acid sequence peptide bonds polypeptides Primary structure Secondary structure hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on polypeptide chain αalpha helix collagen keratin structural component in bones and cartillage structural component in hair beta-pleated sheet silk in spider webs forces of attraction and repulsion between the polypeptide chain and its environment fibrous Tertiary structure globular R-group interactions oppositely-charged chains cystine residues disulfide bridges proline residues R-group is attached to amino group forms natural "kink" (a bend) on the structure, regardless if present on alpha helix or beta pleated sheet hydrogen bonds ionic bonds nonpolar R-groups van der Waals
(London Dispersion forces) 2 or more proteins in tertiary structure interacting with each other Quaternary structure hemoglobin oxygen transport in red blood cells change in pH, temperature, salinity Denaturation disrupts side chain interactions broken peptide bonds between amino acids destroyed protein dangerous proteins are usually able to return to original shape when denaturing agents(s) are removed useful prolonged fever over 39 degrees Celcius denatures enzymes in brain seizures death curling and straightening hair Monosaccharides distinguished based on carboxyl group aldehydes ketones # of carbon in backbone linear trioses 5 or more carbons pentoses (5 carbons) glyceraldehyde dihydroxyacetane ribulose ribose deoxyribose hexoses (6 carbons) fructose glucose galactose dissolved in water readily form ring structures glycosidic linkages 2 to 3 monosaccharides Oligosaccharides glucose + fructose sucrose glucose + glucose maltose table sugar beer sugar hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides Polysaccharides N-acetylglucosamine polymer glucose polymer energy storage structural component chitin component of fungi cell walls, exoskeletons of insects and crustaceans cellulose beta 1-4 glycosidic linkages hydrogen bonding between glucose strands microfibrils intertwining strands tough, insoluble cellulose fibres used by plants to build cell walls animals glycogen stored in muscle and liver cells starch plants stored in plastids amylose amylopectin branches Image Website Sources
triglycerides and glycerol
fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated)
DNA and RNA
ribose and deoxyribose
amino acid structure
pleated sheet and helix
4 levels of protein structure
http://chemistry2.csudh.edu/rpendarvis/1feb23.gif keratin collagen structural component in bones and cartilage structural component in hair