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TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

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Mariano Orahdjkian

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES

TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
EQUIVALENCE
It consists to replace an existing reality in the area of ​​the original text by a reality in the text area of translation.It is mostly applied to sayings and proverbs.
ADAPTATION
It consists in replacing a cultural element of the original text by another characteristic of the receiving culture, that it is therefore more familiar and intelligible. In this case is really important to use a thesaurus.
THE END
TRANSPOSITION
Translation techniques
In reduction procedure, the translator is more likely to reduce in the number of elements that form the SLT. This procedure should respect the principle of relevance, that is, the translator should make sure that no crucial information is dropped in translation.

Examples:

Computer science
Reduction: informática

Washing machine
Reduction: lavadora

Reduction and expansion
These two procedures are usually used in poor written texts, and lead to a change in lexical and stylistic aspects.
ADAPTATION
TRANSPOSITION
Example:

Long-distance love affairs are for fools.

Equivalence:
Amor de lejos, amor de pendejos.
Mandatory transposition:
MODULATION
Modulation is a change in point of view that allows us to express the same phenomenon in a different way. Modulation as a procedure of translation occurs when there is a change of perspective accompanied with a lexical change in the target language.
Transposition is the first and most basic method of oblique translation, is a change of grammatical category. Sometimes this change is almost mandatory. The main changes occurring in adverbs, adjectives, nouns and verbs.
there are two main kinds of transposition techniques:

- Mandatory transposition.

- Optional transposition.
There's a reason for life!

(a) ¡Hay una razón para la vida!

(b) ¡Hay una razón para vivir!
Opcional transposition:
Of interest to Latin America

(a) De interés para la América Latina.

(b) Que interesa a la América Latina.
Your hair is too long------------> Tienes el cabello muy largo
1)
To give a drive
Venezuela: Dar la cola
Argentina: Dar un aventón
Perú: Dar un empujon.
Mexico: Dar un autoestop

2)
He is as dangerous as bull in a china shop
Venezuela: Mas peligroso que mono con navaja.
Argentina: Mas peligroso que chileno haciendo mapas.

3)
Everyone gets deserts sooner or later.
Argentina: A cada chancho le llega su San Martín.
Venezuela: A cada chochino le llega su sábado.

Names according to any country:
Argentina
Carpincho, capincho, capibara, puerco de agua, puerco de río, cerdo de río
.

Bolivia
Carpincho, capincho, capibara, capivara, capiguara and jochi.

Brasil
Capivara.

Colombia
Chigüire, gua gua, guagua, jomo and ponche.

Ecuador
Carpincho, capincho y capibara.

Panamá
Poncho, capibara, chigüiro

Paraguay
Carpincho, capincho, capibara and kapi´yva.

Perú
Ronsoco.

Uruguay
Carpincho, capincho and capibara
.

Venezuela
Chigüiro, chigüire, and Piro-piro
.

Synonyms:
niño, chaval, chico, pibe, chiquillo, criatura, crío, nene, párvulo, peque, gurí, escuincle, chavo, pendejo, chamaco, chabón, carajito.
The term can refer asshole:
a fool, word used as an insult in most countries of
Latin America
;
a stupid word used to refer to someone; it can also be an insult or a joke;
in
Chile
,
Uruguay
,
Argentina
and
Paraguay
, is colloquially used to refer to someone younger;
in
Peru
and
Bolivia
, a word used colloquially to refer to a clever or cunning person;
in
Puerto Rico
,
Cuba
,
Costa Rica
and
Dominican Republic
, a word used colloquially to refer to a timid or cowardly person.
Examples:

POSITIVE FOR DOUBLE NEGATIVE, DOUBLE NEGATIVE FOR POSITIVE



It is not difficult to show

Literal translation: No es difícil de demostrar

Modulation: Es fácil de demostrar


No olvides

Literal translation: Do not forget

Modulation: Remember


I haven’t heard a word from him

Literal translatión: No he oído una palabra de él

Modulation: No he tenido noticias suyas



Conozco la ciudad como la palma de la mano.

Literal translation: I know the city like the palm of my hand.

Modulation: I know the city like the back of my hand.


A heavy coat

Literal translation: Un abrigo pesado

Modulation: un abrigo grueso

Expansion refers to the case where the translator exceeds the number of words of the SLT in translation,

Examples:

¡Qué hermosa piscina
Expansión: What a beautiful swimming pool!

You need a haircut.
Expansión: Usted necesita un corte de pelo.

Teotihuacan reached its peak between 350 and 650 A.D, with 200.000 inhabitants at that time.
Expansión: Teotihuacán llegó a su apogeo entre los años 350 y 650 d.C., momento en el que llegó a contar con unos 200.000 habitantes.

COMPENSATION
In general terms compensation can be used when something cannot be translated, and the meaning that is lost is expressed somewhere else in the translated text. One example given by Peter Fawcett is the problem of translating nuances of formality from languages that use forms such as Spanish tú and usted, into English which only has 'you', and expresses degrees of formality in different ways.

As Louise M. Haywood from the University of Cambridge puts it, "we have to remember that translation is not just a movement between two languages but also between two cultures. Cultural transposition is present in all translation as degrees of free textual adaptation departing from maximally literal translation, and involves replacing items whose roots are in the source language culture with elements that are indigenous to the target language. The translator exercises a degree of choice in his or her use of indigenous features, and, as a consequence, successful translation may depend on the translator's command of cultural assumptions in each language in which he or she works".

Examples:


I wish you would understand.

Compensation:
Desearía que usted pudiera entender.



'Boy, it began to rain like a bastard. In buckets, I swear to God'

Compensation:
'¡Jo! ¡De pronto empezó a llover a cántaros! Un diluvio, lo juro por Dios'.



The atmosphere in the big gambling room had changed. It was now much quieter

Compensation:
El ambiente había cambiado por completo en la gran sala de juego, que ahora se encontraba más tranquila
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