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Transcript of TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES
It consists to replace an existing reality in the area of the original text by a reality in the text area of translation.It is mostly applied to sayings and proverbs.
It consists in replacing a cultural element of the original text by another characteristic of the receiving culture, that it is therefore more familiar and intelligible. In this case is really important to use a thesaurus.
In reduction procedure, the translator is more likely to reduce in the number of elements that form the SLT. This procedure should respect the principle of relevance, that is, the translator should make sure that no crucial information is dropped in translation.
Reduction and expansion
These two procedures are usually used in poor written texts, and lead to a change in lexical and stylistic aspects.
Long-distance love affairs are for fools.
Amor de lejos, amor de pendejos.
Modulation is a change in point of view that allows us to express the same phenomenon in a different way. Modulation as a procedure of translation occurs when there is a change of perspective accompanied with a lexical change in the target language.
Transposition is the first and most basic method of oblique translation, is a change of grammatical category. Sometimes this change is almost mandatory. The main changes occurring in adverbs, adjectives, nouns and verbs.
there are two main kinds of transposition techniques:
- Mandatory transposition.
- Optional transposition.
There's a reason for life!
(a) ¡Hay una razón para la vida!
(b) ¡Hay una razón para vivir!
Of interest to Latin America
(a) De interés para la América Latina.
(b) Que interesa a la América Latina.
Your hair is too long------------> Tienes el cabello muy largo
To give a drive
Venezuela: Dar la cola
Argentina: Dar un aventón
Perú: Dar un empujon.
Mexico: Dar un autoestop
He is as dangerous as bull in a china shop
Venezuela: Mas peligroso que mono con navaja.
Argentina: Mas peligroso que chileno haciendo mapas.
Everyone gets deserts sooner or later.
Argentina: A cada chancho le llega su San Martín.
Venezuela: A cada chochino le llega su sábado.
Names according to any country:
Carpincho, capincho, capibara, puerco de agua, puerco de río, cerdo de río
Carpincho, capincho, capibara, capivara, capiguara and jochi.
Chigüire, gua gua, guagua, jomo and ponche.
Carpincho, capincho y capibara.
Poncho, capibara, chigüiro
Carpincho, capincho, capibara and kapi´yva.
Carpincho, capincho and capibara
Chigüiro, chigüire, and Piro-piro
niño, chaval, chico, pibe, chiquillo, criatura, crío, nene, párvulo, peque, gurí, escuincle, chavo, pendejo, chamaco, chabón, carajito.
The term can refer asshole:
a fool, word used as an insult in most countries of
a stupid word used to refer to someone; it can also be an insult or a joke;
, is colloquially used to refer to someone younger;
, a word used colloquially to refer to a clever or cunning person;
, a word used colloquially to refer to a timid or cowardly person.
POSITIVE FOR DOUBLE NEGATIVE, DOUBLE NEGATIVE FOR POSITIVE
It is not difficult to show
Literal translation: No es difícil de demostrar
Modulation: Es fácil de demostrar
Literal translation: Do not forget
I haven’t heard a word from him
Literal translatión: No he oído una palabra de él
Modulation: No he tenido noticias suyas
Conozco la ciudad como la palma de la mano.
Literal translation: I know the city like the palm of my hand.
Modulation: I know the city like the back of my hand.
A heavy coat
Literal translation: Un abrigo pesado
Modulation: un abrigo grueso
Expansion refers to the case where the translator exceeds the number of words of the SLT in translation,
¡Qué hermosa piscina
Expansión: What a beautiful swimming pool!
You need a haircut.
Expansión: Usted necesita un corte de pelo.
Teotihuacan reached its peak between 350 and 650 A.D, with 200.000 inhabitants at that time.
Expansión: Teotihuacán llegó a su apogeo entre los años 350 y 650 d.C., momento en el que llegó a contar con unos 200.000 habitantes.
In general terms compensation can be used when something cannot be translated, and the meaning that is lost is expressed somewhere else in the translated text. One example given by Peter Fawcett is the problem of translating nuances of formality from languages that use forms such as Spanish tú and usted, into English which only has 'you', and expresses degrees of formality in different ways.
As Louise M. Haywood from the University of Cambridge puts it, "we have to remember that translation is not just a movement between two languages but also between two cultures. Cultural transposition is present in all translation as degrees of free textual adaptation departing from maximally literal translation, and involves replacing items whose roots are in the source language culture with elements that are indigenous to the target language. The translator exercises a degree of choice in his or her use of indigenous features, and, as a consequence, successful translation may depend on the translator's command of cultural assumptions in each language in which he or she works".
I wish you would understand.
Desearía que usted pudiera entender.
'Boy, it began to rain like a bastard. In buckets, I swear to God'
'¡Jo! ¡De pronto empezó a llover a cántaros! Un diluvio, lo juro por Dios'.
The atmosphere in the big gambling room had changed. It was now much quieter
El ambiente había cambiado por completo en la gran sala de juego, que ahora se encontraba más tranquila