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Phrases- Different Types & Their Functions

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Emily Grice

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Phrases- Different Types & Their Functions

Phrases- Different Types & Their Functions
What is a phrase?
A phrase is a GROUP of related words that is used as a SINGLE part of speech.

A phrase does NOT contain both a verb and its subject; a phrase is not a complete sentence (that would be a clause).
Prepositional Phrases
A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that subject.

Did members of the Clay-Battelle football team recently go to the playoffs?
The compound noun "Clay-Battelle football team" is the object of the preposition "of"
The noun "playoffs" is the object of the preposition "for"
Therefore, we have two prepositional phrases in this question.
The Adjective Phrase
A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

An adjective phrase tells:
what kind?
which one?
The Adverb Phrase
A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.

An adverb phrase tells:
how
when
where
why
to what extent
how much
how long
how far
Verbals and Verbal Phrases
Verbal- a verb form that is used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

verb phrase

prepositional phrase

infinitive phrase
have been waiting (no subject)

during the storm (no subject or verb)

to run swiftly (no subject or verb)
According to them, the National Museum of Art will be built next to the Washington Monument.
The pronoun "them" is the object of the compound preposition "According to."
The compound noun "Washington Monument" is the object of the compound preposition "next to."
Remember: A preposition always has a NOUN or PRONOUN as an object.
One of my friends is making a film about bullying.
"of my friends" modifies the pronoun "One," answering - which one
"about bullying" modifies the noun "film," answering- what kind
-An adjective phrase almost always follows the word it modifies.
-That word may be the object of another preposition.
The film won't include all of the students in our class.
"Of the students" modifies the pronoun "all"
"In our class" modifies the noun "students," which is the object of the preposition "of"
-More than one adjective phrase may modify the same word.
Instead, it will relate to the experiences of five students at school and in their neighborhood.
The three phrases "of five students," "at school," and "in their neighborhood" modify the noun "experiences"
Sometimes an adjective phrase can be combined with a noun to form a compound noun.
Helen of Troy Meals on Wheels


tug-of-war jack-in-the-box
An adverb phrase may modify a verb.
After the early 800s, the Fuji family ruled as regents in Japan for more than three hundred years.
Each phrase modifies the verb "ruled"
"After the early 800s" tells -when; "as regents" tells-how; "in Japan" tells -where; & "for more than three hundred years" tells -how long
More than one adverb phrase can modify the same word.
Adverb phrases usually come before the word it modifies.
An adverb phrase may modify an adjective.
Then the Minos, another family active in political matters, gained power.
"In political matters" modifies the adjective "active," telling -how
An adverb phrase may modify an adverb.
The Fuji family had ruled too leniently for their own good.
"For their own good" modifies the adverb "leniently," telling -how
3 kinds:
the participle
the gerund
the infinitive
Verbal Phrase- consists of a verbal and its modifiers and complements.
3 kinds:
the participle phrase
the gerund phrase
the infinitive phrase
The Participle
Participle- verb form that can be used as an adjective
Two kinds:
present participle
past participle
Present participles end in "-ing"

The freezing rain made the road slick.
"Freezing" modifies the noun "rain"
Bowing, the performers acknowledged the applause.
"Bowing" modifies the noun "performers"
Did I hear someone knocking on the door?
"Knocking" modifies the pronoun "someone"
Most past participles end in "-d" or "-ed."
Others are irregularly formed.
First prize was an engraved trophy.
"Engraved" modifies the noun "trophy"
The lab tested samples of water taken from wells in the area.
"Taken" modifies the noun "water"
Rested and relaxed, we returned to work.
"Rested" and "relaxed" are both modifying the pronoun "we"
The Participle Phrase
Participle phrase- consists of a participle and its modifiers and complements.
-The entire phrase is used as an adjective.
Grinning broadly, Taylor Swift accepted the award.
The participle phrase "Grinning broadly" modifies the compound noun "Taylor Swift"
The adverb "broadly" modifies the present participle "Grinning"
Proclaiming his innocence, the candidate strongly denied the charges.
The participle phrase "Proclaiming his innocence" modifies the noun "candidate"
The noun "innocence" is the direct object of the present participle "Proclaiming"
Puzzled by their behavior, I asked for an explanation.
The participle phrase "Puzzled by their behavior" modifies the pronoun "I"
The adverb phrase "by their behavior" modifies the past participle "Puzzled"
West Virginia, formerly known as Virginia, is in eastern America.
The participle phrase "formerly known as Virginia" modifies the noun "West Virginia"
The adverb "formerly" modifies the past participle "known"
The prepositional phrase "as Virginia" modifies the past participle "known"
The Absolute Phrase
The absolute phrase consists of:
a participle or participle phrase
a noun or a pronoun that the participle or participle phrase modifies
any other modifiers of the noun or pronoun
-The entire word group is used as an adverb to modify a clause in a sentence.
-Has no grammatical connection to any word in the clause it modifies
-The phrase will tell us:
when
how
why
Their car having been repaired, the Smiths continued their road trip.
The absolute phrase "Their car having been repaired" modifies the independent clause, telling WHEN the Smiths continued their road trip
Chris said that, the weather being so nice, he would prefer to go for a hike.
The absolute phrase "the weather being so nice" modifies the subordinate clause, telling us WHY Chris would prefer to go on a hike
The participle phrase "being so nice" modifies the noun "weather"
Wearily, the explorer trudged onward through the snow, his loyal Alaskan dog keeping pace at his side.
The absolute phrase " his Alaskan dog keeping pace at his side" modifies the independent clause, telling us HOW the explorer trudged onward through the snow
The participle phrase "keeping pace at his side" modifies the noun "Alaskan dog"
The Gerund
Gerund- a verb form ending "-ing" that is used as a noun
Noun as subject-
Photographing
animals requires great patience.

Noun as direct object- Please stop
whispering
.

Noun as indirect object- The team gave
passing
the ball their full attention.

Noun as predicate nominative- The issue is his
whining
.

Noun as object of preposition- In
answering
, give specific examples.
Do not confuse a gerund with a present participle used as an adjective or as part of a verb phrase.
Gerund:


Present Participle:


Present Participle:
I remember driving from Florida to Texas last fall.
"Driving" is the direct object of the verb "remember"
Driving on long road trips, we usually take turns behind the wheel .
"Driving" is an adjective modifying the pronoun "we"
We heard mostly country music on the radio while we were driving.
"Driving" is the main verb in the verb phrase "were driving."
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