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Adam's work

Reformation through Today...

Adam Blagg

on 29 April 2010

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Transcript of Adam's work

Timeline of Christianity
Since the Reformation 1500...........................1550............................1600............................1650............................1700..............................1750.................................1800...............................1850..................................1900..................................1950...............................2000 Europe, Early 16th C. Capitalism
broke down the established social hierarchy
civil authorities relied less on the church for financial stability
Kings in France tightened their grip on the country, subverting church control
England expanded power, taking some from the church Catholic Church
provided unity for Europe
filled a void that was present due
to a lack of a strong central govt Defining Events
Jan Hus martydom
John Wycliffe's Bible
Invention of Printing Press
Discovery of the New World Powerful Rulers
Ferdinand & Isabella
Louis XI & Francis I
Henry VII
Henry VIII
Charles V Ferdinand & Isabella
unified Spain under one rule, 1492
expelled Muslims from Spain, 1492
sponsored Columbus exploration of the
New World, 1492
strong Catholic rulers
parents of Catherine of Aragon
grandparents of Charles V
Louis XI & Francis I
both centralized french political power
Louis XI know as "Universal Spider"
due to his political savy and conspiracies
Francis I was a rival of Henry VIII & Charles V
Used the Reformation to weaken enemies but eventually rejected the Reformation
Moved away from a strong papal influence Henry VII
First Tudor Monarch, final victor of Battle of the Roses
Centralized power in the monarchy through taxation of the feudal lords and other various legal actions
Sought diplomatic ties with Spain, heir apparant Arthur married Catherine of Aragon

Henry VIII
Married six times in search for a male heir
Peer of Charles V and Francis I, ally and enemy of both
during his reign
Divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in split
with Catholic Church
Split was political in nature, not theological
Named himself head of Church of England, but held to
most Catholic practices Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
also known as Charles I, Spanish King
ruled over parts of modern day
Germany, Netherlands, France, Italy, Spain
and parts of the New World
Convened the Council of Trent
Violently opposed the Reformation
Martin Luther Catholic priest who sought reform by:
urging the use of scripture in vernacular
questioning the scriptural basis of some sacraments
relying on salvation by grace
initial complaint was against the selling of indulgances Vital Information
born 1483
Master of Arts 1505
Began Law Degree
Joined Monastary 1506
Ordained 1507
Professor 1508
Doctorate 1512
Chair of Biblical Studies Wittenburg 1512
95 Theses 1517
The Babylonian Captivity... 1520
Diet of Worms & Excommunication 1521
"Kidnapped" by Fredrick 1521
Translated New Testament into German 1522
Married 1523
German Liturgy 1526
Large Catechism 1529
Augsburg Confession 1530
Died 1546 Theology
sola gratia (only grace)
sola fide (only faith)
sola scriptura (only scripture)
Taught against any form of grace
attained through works
human condition is steeped in sin and death
viewed church as priesthood of all believers Why the Reformation Succeedded?
Addressed theological issues that were relevant to the greater populace,such as pennance and confession
Economic conditions at times put monastic communities in direct competition with peasant farmers
Abuses of wealth and power by some clergy and monks
Devotion to the church and piety in general allowed for Luther's ideas to have impact on the community at large (people listened when scholars talked)
Ability to disseminate writing quickly and to a large number of people
The Spread of Protestantism Religions of the Head,
Religions of the Heart The Great Awakening Protestantism in the Modern World New Churches The Early Progress of the Lutheran Movement
Charles V was unable to repress Luther/Protestant movement in part due to the strong German princes
Political struggles between Francis I, Henry VIII and Charles V at times left Catholic church in a position to be unresponsive to the Lutheran uprising, all three monarchs used the reformation against each other in various ways, even if their personal views were staunchly Catholic
To confuse matters even more the Pope at times also worked against Charles V and his anti-Lutheran policies because he was afraid of the power he might weild
Augsburg Confession in 1530 set the path for eventual legal status for Protestant churches in Germany
Peace of Augsburg was signed in 1555, allowing Lutheran churches only the right to exist at the discretion of the regional ruler, "one ruler, one religion" The Urban Reformation
late medieval city grew dramatically, divide between urban and suburban was at times violent and repressive
at Reformation grew, the gulf between the two began to weaken due to Luther's views on equality in Christ
Reformation happened city by city, and brought with it significant changes in religious practice and also economic assistance
less feast days helped productivity, no taxes to Rome helped keep monetary sources at home, education improved with focus on humanist and classical teaching
The Peasant Revolts of 1525
revolts were not uncommon in the late Middle Ages
failed harvests in 1524 & 1525 attributed to the desperation of the peasants
peasants were armed with Lutheran theology dealing with justice and equality
sought to end restrictive access to land and rivers, heavy taxation, and high rent
Luther was opposed to the oppression of the peasants but also urged them not to revolt, eventually sided with the princes
Luther was not always aware of how his theology would play out in the "real" world Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
founded by Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Book of Mormon divinely revealed to Smith, traced lost tribes of Isreal to America
Brigham Young lead the young church to Utah after Smith was murdered
polygamy abolished in 1890
many traditional doctrines have been modified
very active in recruiting new members Christian Science
founded by Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910)
she was miraculous healed in 1866 while reading a New Testament account of Jesus healing
Church founded in 1879
places emphasis on the divine and relegates the material world to a lesser status
No clergy and no preaching, sacraments acknowledged but not outwardly
Seventh-Day Adventists
Adventist movement started by William Miller (1782-1849)
founded by Ellen G White in 1842
first denomination to arise from the millennialism movement
Christ was to return in 1843 (announced in 1835)
Failure to obey the 4th commandment concerning the Sabbath led to worship on Saturday
Lutheran Worship
Scripture focused worship through reading and preaching at center
Increased lay participation through vernacular Bible and preaching
Introduced congregational hymns
Eucharistic participation encouraged more frequently
Laity allowed to hold and have both bread & cup
Focus on hearing the Word, not seeing the symbols
Eucharistic liturgy “truncated”
Liturgy pedagogical/didactic (less poetic narrative than RC’s) Overview
Spain and Italy remained very Catholic, strong ties with papcy and dislike of Luther attributed
France had a strong Catholic monarchy but a protestant middle class, Huguenots, gained influence through the 16th century, 1593 King Henry IV, Huguenot was coronated but had to convert to Catholicism to avoid further conflict
Issued Edict of Nantes in 1598 allowing religious toleration for protestants
Netherlands was ruled but Charles V and he repressed the growing reform movements violently
Phillip II ascended the throne in 1555 but had trouble retaining control of the land and by 1607 portions of the Netherlands had achieved independence
Synod of Dort arose from Dutch theological differences stemming from Jacob Arminius and his debate about predestionation English Reformation
began with Henry VIII and his desire to have his marriage annulled, but do not discount the deisre for church reform beyond the scope of the "King's Great Matter"
several influential advisors during this time were reform minded, most noted Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell, both worked through the monarchy to exact reform
Henry was very Catholic he just had no desire for papal influence, through legistlative means he was declared "Supreme Head of the English Church and Clergy"
Initial changes in worship practice was minimal under Henry
During the reing of Edward VI, Cranmer created the Book of Common Prayer (1549) as the official liturgy of the English Church
Mary took the throne in 1553 and worked on restoring Catholicisim, Cranmer was burned as a heretic in 1556
Elizabeth ascended the English throne in 1558 and sought a unified church, doing so she reissued a revised Book of Common Prayer (1559)
The Thirty-Nine Artilces of 1563 became the statement of faith for the Anglican church and were based greatly upon the work of Thomas Cranmer
Elizabeth's policy of via media, or middle way characterized her approach to the church
Scottish Reformation
lack of middle class hampered the initial reform movements
John Knox was an early reformer in Scotland and after imprisonment he fled to Europe to study reformation theology
Knox was asked to return to Scotland in 1558 to help strenghten ties with protestant England but his lambasting of femal rulers did not sit well with Elizabeth
Reformed Church of Scotland was formed in 1560 and was a precursor to the modern Presbyterian church
Mary Stuart was catholic Queen of Scotland and her abdication of the throne in 1587 marked the end of catholic rule in Scotland
party that desired additional reform not taken by Elizabeth
desired less "popery" and a more congregational authority
held society to a higher standard of less excess in lifestyle and drinking
James I became king at Elizabeth's death and was a puritan but his dealings in Scotland and the democratic notions of the Calvinist there led him back towards views held by Henry VIII
James repressed puritan thought and preachers, many fled to Holland and returned to found a baptist church in 1612

Anglican Worship
Common worship over doctrinal consensus
One common text; Book of Common Prayer
Single worship book (compared to RC proliferation of missals, prayer books, lectionary, etc)
Act of Uniformity disallowed local variations of CBP
Text in hands of worshippers for first time
Vernacular (English) Bible written and used
Retained priestly vestments, ornamented worship setting, signs of the cross, kneeling and confirmation (and kept some saint’s days)
Full communion to be taken at least 3X/year
Reduced office to two services, made accessible to laity
Metrical Psalms sung by congregation as core of music (few hymns, “lack of English poets”)

Oliver Cromwell
ongoing strife between Charles I and Parliment came to a head with the invasion of Scotland
1633 William Laud was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury and began to enforce the Anglican liturgy and in the process persecuted puritans
1649 Laud and Charles were executed and Oliver Cromwell exerted control over England, also conquering Ireland and Scotland
Allowed religious toleration of all but Catholics
Cromwell died in 1658, Charles II and James II ruled poorly until 1688 when parliment invited the dutch monarchs William and Mary to come rule England.
Act of Toleration issued in 1689 that brought the church back to the middle Deism
type of natural religion
worked within the confines of Christianity in a loose form, placed empahsis on reason not revelation
Jakob Boehme (1575-1625)
thought that theological debate was pointless, desired to explore inner life and had many visions
believed salvation from evil came through union with Christ
George Fox (1624-1661)
revelation was defined in the "inner light" in each person
rejects total depravity
movement embodied in the Quaker tradition and eliminated structured worship
Emmanuel swedenborg (1688-1772)
determined that under the physical world existed a spiritual world that gave life to the physical
desired the church to reform to the visions that had been revealed to him

Quaker Worship
Emphasized movement of the Holy Spirit not “human inventions”
Recognized inner light, divine potential in all worshippers
Silently waited for Spirit with no pre-designated preacher or leader
Egalitarian social behavior and leadership in worship and daily life
Allowed female leadership in worship
Combined worship with concern for justice
True religion seen as inside a person
Eliminated all outward forms, rituals, ministerial roles, even sacraments of baptism & communion Pietism
sought to remain a movement within the context of the established church and crossed denominational lines
True Christiantiy by Johann Arndt (1555- 1621)was the pivotal book in the movement, and stressed the need to be in union with Christ and the resulting transformation that union produced
hoped to the change the heart of the Christian to desire a holy life, not simple attend chruch out of habit
Pia Desideria was the next monumental text to pietism, written by Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705), from his work fellowship groups formed that practiced the holy life
Count Ludwig von Zinzendorf (1700-1760) was influenced by and influenced pietist thought
Zinzendorf formed a community at Herrnhut of Anabaptist refugees and the Moravian movement began
John Wesley (1703-1791) Anglican priest who served as a missionary in Georgia, on return trip travelled with Moravians and was moved by their piety
1738 Aldersgate Experience, travelled to Hernnhut and was fond of the movement but did not join the movement
With brother Charles began the Methodist movement with the intention of reviving piety within the Anglican church
Movement took root in colonies and after Reveloution was given indepence from the Anglican Church with the "ordination" of Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke

Methodist Worship
Sought greater individual piety
Developed lay preachers
Doctrinal hymnody
Used field preaching, camp meetings and personal testimony
“Evangelical Sacramentalism” brings people close to God
Used Book of Common Prayer for Holy Communion The Great Awakening
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) was the first revivalist preach that is attached to this movement
Preached with great zeal that brought forth life changing expereinces in those who heard the word proclaimed
Influenced all denominations, especially the Baptist and Methodists who were pushing church growth into the frontier
Helped define American indivdualism 19th Century Liberal Theology
Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) was influenced by Romanticism and taught at University of Berlin, believed that religious meaning was more than intellectual, instead a "deeply felt awareness of absolute dependence upon God"
Albrecht Ritschl (1822-1889) also moved from the doctrinal understanding of church towards an ethical approach to religion, disagreed with Schleiermacher that feelings made religion to personal
Ritschl's work lead to the Social Gospel movement in the United States with adherants such as Harry emerson Fosdick and Walter Rauschenbusch
Rauschenbusch focused on saving society and not simply looking at the individual
Critics of Liberal Christianity
Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) was a Danish philosopher who decried the ease at which liberal theology conformed to society
He urged a faith that was not easy and relied heavily on God to provide for the individual
Not popular in his time but his workgreatly influenced 20th century existentialism
Several movements in the Anglican, Lutheran and Presbyterian churches against liberal christianity that decried its lack of respect for tradition, also can see the roots for the upcoming fundamentalism movement Revivalism
starts in the second half of the 19th century and focused on a "second awakening"
Some of the great preachers of that era:
Jeremiah Lanphier
Chalres Finney
Dwight L Moody
Billy Sunday
Movement continued into the 20th century with offshoots forming such as the Salvation Army
Was renewed again with advent of radio and television, Charles Fuller, Billy Graham and others 20th Century Theology
neo-orthodoxy rejected the liberal theology of the 19th century and focused on a return the themes of the Reformation
Karl Barth (1886-1968) was a leader in rejecting the notiont that human progress was moving towards a better society and focused on Christ as the only way to God
Focused on the divine aspects of God and was appalled at the German churh during the rule of the Nazi party
Church Dogmatics was his defining work that was left incomplete at his death
Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-1945) also moved in the same direction at Barth, his imprisonment in Nazi Germany provided a vivid backdrop to his writing about the dangers of "cheap grace"
Jehovah's Witnesses
Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society
millennialist group founded by Charles Taze Russel in 1881
predicted the end of the world in 1914
believe in an election of 144,000
do not believe in the trinity
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