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Cardiovascular System

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by

Kim Somer

on 14 April 2015

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Transcript of Cardiovascular System

Cardiovascular System Background Information for Diagram 2
Heart=Huge Pump
Left Side of the Heart=Loaded
Right Side of the Heart=Recycled
Interventricular Septum=Important Separator
PFO
Patent Foreman Ovale
Congenital Hole in the Heart
Pulmonary & Systemic Circulation
Diagram 3

Diagram 2
Diagram 2
Diagram 2
Diagram 2
Diagram 2
Diagram 2
Hey kids, this is just for giggles and knowledge;
PFO will not be presented on your test.
Practice Test Questions Related to Diagram 2
You
WILL
have to label the major veins and arteries on the test. You
WILL NOT
have heart diagrams;
HOWEVER
, you
WILL
have multiple choice questions which relate to diagrams 1-6.

Sample 1:
Using words and arrows; chart the blood flow through the heart, starting with the inferior and superior vena cava.
Sample 2:
Which ventricle is more muscular and why?
Sample 3:
Why is it so dangerous if the interventricular septum is damaged?
How the Heart Valves Work for Diagram 4
Sample 4:
What is the significance of the coronary arteries?
Excellent Overview of Heart Function
AV Valves=Inbetween the Atria & Ventricles
2 Semilunar Valves
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Healthy Heartbeat
***Lubb Dub
***Atria contract 1st
***Ventricle contract 2nd
Atrial Contraction
***AV Valves Open due to pressure changes, and the ***Semilunar Valves Shut.
Ventricular Contraction
***AV Valves Shut
***Semilunar Valves Open.
Sample Test Question Related to Diagram 3
Why does the heart have a dual pumping System?

Sample Test Questions Related to Diagram 4
Sample 1:
What would happen if the AV valves were leaky?
Sample 2:
What would happen if the semilunar valves were leaky?
Sample 3:
Dysfunction in which set of valves would directly lead to stretched out flabby ventricular walls, and why? AV or Semilunar?
Cardiac Cycle for Diagram 6
Listen up! We are skipping diagram 5; we will visit illustration 5 later.
Everything you need to answer diagram 6 is in your book. When you read your text, you will see that the answers are literally written for you. View the next slides for information on pressure and volume changes in the heart.
Significant Pressure and Volume Changes Occuring During the Cardiac Cycle for Diagram 6
Pressure
Force Exerted over a given area or volume. This force is exerted by the molecules which make up all matter and the cells that make up biological systems.
Blood Pressure
The amount of force exerted by the volume of blood pushing against the arterial walls.
Volume and Pressure Have are Inversely Proportional
When volume is increased, pressure is decreased.
When volume is decreased, pressure is increased.
Significant Pressure and Volume Changes Occurring During the Cardiac Cycle for Diagram 6 (c & f)
Diastole=Dead
Systole=Squeeze
During Diastole
***Heart Relaxed or Dilated
***Volume inside the heart is Larger
***Pressure inside the heart is decreased.
During Systole
***Ventricules Contracted
***Volume inside the heart is smaller
***Pressure inside the heart increased.
Diffusion
Molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration. The molecules exerting a force and causing pressure, will follow the laws of diffusion and move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Since the volume inside the heart is increased during diastole, the pressure inside the heart is lower; as compared to the surrounding pressure in the blood vessels. Therefore, during diastole, blood will naturally flow into the heart, from an area of higher pressure outside the heart to an area of lower pressure inside the heart.
Since the volume inside the heart is decreased during systole......Reverse your thought process.
Sample Test Questions for Diagram 6
Sample Question 1: How does the heart manipulate pressure and volume; so that the veins work against gravity and get the recycled blood from the toes back to the heart for reoxygenation.
Background Information for Diagram 5
Vocabulary List for Matching Section of the Test
Answer for Clinical 1
Be aware! Any information in red, needs to be included in your clinical.
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure
Normal Blood Pressure
120/70
Atherosclerosis
Answer for Clinical 1

(a)
Be aware! Any information in red,
needs to be included in your clinical.
Atherosclerosis
***Artery walls thicken
***Build up of fatty substances, like cholesterol, ***Plaque sticks to the inside of the inner wall of the artery.
***Narrowing of the arteries.
The Patients blood pressure is 140/90; therefore this patient is showing clear signs of......(refer to the chart above)
Damage to the arteries can also lead to atherosclerosis; when arteries are damaged, repair plaque is laid down to repair the torn area, excessive plaque like scabs, can also lead to narrowing of the arteries.
If hypertension goes untreated for a 10-15 year period, this can lead to extensive arterial damage, and atherosclerosis.
Answer for Clinical 1(b)
Be aware! Any information in red,
needs to be included in your clinical
Obesity and Hypertension
***Heart works harder to push the blood through the excess surface fat covering the muscle
Nicotine
***Excessive tearing occurs on the inner walls of the arteries
***Repaired by extensive plaque like scab formation
***Narrows the arteries
Answer for Clinical 1(c)
Be aware! Any information in red,
needs to be included in your clinical
Angina Pectoris occurs when the myocardium is deprived of oxygen. The nervous system will send messages to the brain in the form of crushing chest pain.
Ischemia occurs when there is a localized decrease in blood flow; which starves and suffocates the cells affected.
Myocardial Infarction occurs when there is a decrease in blood flow to a localized area of the myocardium, starving and suffocating the heart cells, leading to heart attack.
Kids, it is up to you to connect these dots and explain how definitions relate to the patient.
Answer for Clinical 1(d)
Be aware! Any information in red,
needs to be added to your clinical
Coronary Arteries
***Supply the myocardium with blood
***Coronary arteries blocked
***Heart muscle can suffer localized ischemia
***Heart attack.
Answer for Clinical 1(e)
You are the Doctor, you chose the surgery. Be sure to how the surgery is performed and why you chose it.
CABG
Coronary Angioplasty
Balloon Angioplasty
Stent????
Answer for Clinical 2(a)
Be aware! Any Information in Red
needs to be added to your Clinical
A normal heart rate is 60-100 beats per minute.
This patient is suffering from a bradycardia because their heart rate is...
When your biological pump is sluggish; this decreases blood flow into the tissues all over your body. If the lack of blood flow is severe; the body tissues will begin to starve and suffocate.
Answer for Clinical 2(b)
Be aware! Any Information in Red
must be added to your Clinical
Sinoatrial Node
Sinoatrial node
***Heart's natural pacemaker
***Group of nerve cells where the depolarization wave originates.
***Depolarization will begin at the sinoatrial node ***Continue across the entire surface of the heart.
Sinoatrial node is dysfunctional
***Irregular heart rhythms
***Depolarization is delayed
***Heart rate slowed
Hearts conduction system
and EKG or ECG
Reading an ECG or EKG
An ECG or EKG
***Measurees Flow of electrical current across the heart.
Bradycardia
***Slowed heart rate.
Answer for Clinical 2(c)
Be aware! Any information in Red
must be added to your clinical.
Ischemia is a localized decrease in blood flow; which starves and suffocates the affected cells.
Infarct is when oxygen deprived cells and tissues die, this is called and infarct.
Myocardial Infarction=Heart Attack
Ladies and Gentlemen; it is up to you to write complete sentences and discuss how ischemia, infarct and myocardial infarction, relate to this patient.
Answer for Clinical 2(d)
Be aware! Any information in Red
must be added to your clinical.
Permanent Pacemaker
Permanent Pacemaker
Pacemaker Surgery
Sample Test Question Related to Clinical 2
Ladies and Gentlemen, you must have a full understanding of the PQRS wave represented in a ECG or EKG.
P-Wave=Atrial Contraction
QRS Wave=Ventricular Contraction
T-Wave=Recovery or Refractory Period
The After Shock
Answer for Clinical 3(a)
Be aware! Any information in red must be added to your clinical.
Rheumatic Fever
*** Untreated Streptococcus A.
***Damages Heart valves.
Heart valves
***Blood flowing in the proper direction.
***Valves damaged blood will backflush
***Backflused Blood pools at the bottom of ventricles
Backflushed Pooled Blood in the Ventricles
***Excessive strain on the ventricular walls cause
***Walls stretch out and become flabby
***More Blood will pool at the base of the heart ***Congestive heart failure can set in.
It is important to note that Rhematic heart disease has been wiped out in almost all developed nations. It is described as a disease of poverty; close proximity and poor sanitation only increases the spread of this disease.
Answer for Clinical 3(b)
Restricted blood flowacross a heart valve
***Abnormal sound
***It is kind of like "pinching," a garden hose. ***Sounds are called heart murmurs.
Be Aware! Any information in red
must be added to your clinical
Answer for Clinical 3(c)
Be Aware! All information in red
must be added to your clinical
Mitral Stenosis
***Narrowing of the Mitral Valve
***Restriction in blood flow
***Keeps the mitral valve from closing properly when necessary.
Mitral valve is partially open during ventricular contraction
***Blood will back flush into the atria
If the back flooding into the atria is extreme 2 things will happen
1. The blood will not be properly oxygenated
2. Poorly oxygenated blood will be transported systemically into the body tissues.
These 2 factors lead to severe fatigue.
Answer for Clinical 3(d)
Be Aware! All information in red
must be added to your clinical
Background Information for Paragraph 4
Blood Components
Blood Components
Blood Type ABO System
Antigens & Antibodies
Immune System
Antigens=Antibody Generators
If you get antigens into your body that you don't already have; you will make antibodies against them.
Answer for Paragraph 4
It is possible for a positive blood type to receive a transfusion from a matching negative blood type; for example A+ can

RECEIVE

from A-, because the A+ patient receiving the A- transfusion, already has A antigens and therefore
WILL NOT
make antibodies.
It is NOT possible, for a negative blood type to receive a transfusion from a matching positive blood type; for example A-
CANNOT RECEIVE
from A+, because the A- patient receiving the A+ transfusion, does not have RH antigens and therefore
WILL

make antibodies against the invading RH antigens.
O- is the universal donor, O- can be given to anybody because there are no antigens on the surface of this blood cell. In other words, there are no antigens to generate an antibody response.
AB+ is the universal receiver, AB+ can receive a blood transfusion from any blood type because it doesn't make any antibodies. In other words, if AB+ made A or B or RH antibodies, it would be making antibodies against itself and commit suicide.
Background Information for Paragraph 1
Myocardium

Answer to Paragraph 5

The RH Factor
***Additional surface antigen
***Surface Fingerprint on the blood cell
***Positive blood type is defined as having the additional Rh surface protein
***Negative blood type is lacking the Rh surface protein
When an Rh- mom has an Rh+ baby
***Mom's Rh antibodies can cross the placenta and attack the developing fetuses blood cells
***Hemolytic disease
***Hemolysis, Mom's Rh antibodies will destroy the fetuses red blood cells and cause them to rupture.
In this day and age; it is very rare for a fetus to develop hemolytic disease; however, on the rare occasion it occurs the medical team will take the following steps;
a. Intense monitoring to look for anemia, ischemia and blueing of the skin.
b. If severe systems ensue the babies system must be flushed entirely.
In this day and age; Mom's obstatrician, will pretreat her condition. If the Mom is Rh- her doctor will give her an injection which shuts down her production of Rh antibodies. This injection will be given during the family planning stages.
Answer for Paragraph 3
Low blood pressure triggers the release of Aldosterone. The Aldosterone Hormone will increase blood pressure by causing 2 affects on the body.
a. Aldosterone triggers the kidneys to increase reapsorbtion.
b. Water, Sodium, Potassium and other essential electrolytes are reabsorbed and shunted into the bloodstream.

Since pressure is the amount of force acting on a contained volume; increased blood volume due to reabsorbed water will naturally increase blood pressure. In addition, by increasing the concentration of dissolved solutes(substances) in the blood, this causes an increase in density which also acts to increase blood pressure.
Myocardium=Heart Muscle
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