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Social Work 421 Methods of Practice III (MACRO)

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Rhondda Waddell

on 11 September 2016

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Transcript of Social Work 421 Methods of Practice III (MACRO)

Social Work 421 Methods of Practice III (MACRO)
Three Lessons

Chapter 2 Micro Skills in Macro Environment
Reflection: Grant Writing Demonstration
Power Point/Prezi Chapt. 2 & Accompanying Videos
Class Activity: Affective Communication Skills
SLU Core Values: Respect & Integrity

Chapter 3 Group Skills for Organizational and Community Change
Power point/Prezi Review
Class Activity: Needs Assessment Guide
SLU Core Values
Chapter 4: Understanding Organizations
Power point/Prezi Review
SLU Core Values:
Respect & Integrity

Micro. Mezzo. Macro
NASW Code of Ethics
Core Values
Evidenced-Based Practice
Human Rights
One group who have traditionally been moved to action by "pity for the poor", we call the Charitable; the other, larger or smaller in each generation, but always fired by the "hatred of injustice" we designate as the Radicals.
Review Chapter 1
Power point/Prezi
Class Activity:Know your systems
Review Chapt. 14 Devloping & Managing Agency Resources
SLU Core Values: Community, Responsible Stewardship
Class Activity: Know Your Systems
Case Scenario:
You are a health association case manager in a small, isolated, rural town. Your client is a 32-year-old man with AIDS. You have helped arrange for delivery of medical supplies to his home through the only medical supply company in the area. His private medical insurance pays for the supplies. You are pleased with the company's service and enjoy the conversational relationship you have with the company's salesperson.

When it is learned that the client's one-year-old nephew, who lives in the same household, also has AIDS, you get the child disability benefits. When you call the medical supply company to order the special digestible formula and medicine the physician prescribed for the baby, the salesperson whom you often speak with answers the phone and takes the order. When you give the salesperson the baby's Medicaid number, there is a pause in the conversation and you are put on hold. In a few minutes, the salesperson returns, saying that a manger has confirmed that they are not able to take the order.


-What would you do now?

Write answers on the board.

Ask the following questions?

-Who are the potential client systems?
-Who would be the target system?
-Who could be your action system?
-How might you use yourself differently depending on your role with each system?
-Would you realistically go through these steps?
-What might motivate you?
-What might hold you back?
-What does the slogan "Think Globally, Act "Locally" mean in the context of this situation?

Class Activity
Identify Your Client
Assess the Client-Situation
Cite Information about problems and needs
Identify Strengths
Planning: Formulate a Plan For the Intervention Process
Implement the Plan
Evaluate Results and Effectiveness
Termination of the planned Change Intervention Process
Follow-up on Progress Made

III.12. Use of the Planned Change Process

A. Critical thinking—the ability to use intellectual and affective processes which evaluate statements, arguments, and experiences by judging the validity and/or worth of those statements, arguments, and experiences

B. Critical thinking in social work practice involves :

Asking questions
Assess the established facts & issues involved
Assert an informed concluding opinion pg. 35

C. Practice fallacies that can trick practitioners into false beliefs. What are fallacies that affect critical thinking give an example in a case scenario? pg. 31
III.10. Employment of Critical Thinking Skills

I. Facilitator: guides a group experience
J. Initiator—calls attention to an issue
K. Negotiator: intermediary who acts to settle disputes and/or resolve disagreements, clearly taking the side of one of the parties involved
L. Mobilizer—identifies and convenes community people and resources and makes them responsive to unmet community need
M.Advocate—steps forward and speaks out on the behalf of the client system in order to promote fair and equitable treatment or gain needed resources or services

III.9. A Wide Range of Roles (continued)

General Manager: assumes some level of administrative responsibility for a social services agency or some other organizational system. Administrators utilize three levels of skills

F. Educator—conveys information and teaches skills to other systems
G. Analyst/Evaluator—ascertains the effectiveness of a program or agency
H. Broker—links any size system with community resources and services

III.9. A Wide Range of Roles (continued)

A. Role—a culturally expected behavior pattern for a person having a specified status or being involved in a designated social relationship

B. Enabler—provides support, encouragement, and suggestions to members of a macro client system so that system may complete tasks or solve problems more easily and successfully

C. Mediator—resolves arguments or disagreements among micro, mezzo, or macro systems in disagreement

D. Integrator/Coordinator—brings people involved in various systems together and organizes their performance

III.9. Assumption of a Wide Range of Roles

Human Rights
Social Justice
Economic Justice
Responsibility of the social work profession

III. 7. Advocacy for Human Rights and the Pursuit of Social and Economic Justice

III. 6. The Importance of Human Diversity

—the process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take action to improve their life situations
Strengths perspective
—focuses on client system resources, capabilities, knowledge, abilities, motivations, experience, intelligence, and other positive qualities that can be put to use to solve problems and pursue positive changes
Seeking Strength Amid Adversity (pg. 14)

III.5. Emphasis on Client Empowerment

Awareness of Personal Values—Professionally obligated to prevent personal values that conflict with professional values from interfering with practice

D. Management of Ethical Dilemmas
Can you think of an ethical dilemma in social work?

III.3. Assimilation of Professional Values and Ethics (continued)

III.1. Acquisition of an Eclectic Knowledge Base

Systems theories: the macro client system; the target system; the change agent system; the action system

Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE)
Social Welfare Policy and Services
Social Work Practice
Social Work Research

Values and principles that guide practice
Review: System Theory (focus on interactions between individual and environment) and Ecological theory (emphasies the importance of interactions between a person and the environment).
A micro approach
A mezzo approach
A macro approach: example when to use a macro approach?

II. What Does Generalist Practice Mean?
The application of an eclectic knowledge base, professional values, and a wide range of skills to target any size system for change within the context of three primary principles, a context, and four primary processes. pg. 8 & 9

I. The Generalist Intervention Model

Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities
by Karen Kirst-Ashman and Grafton Hull

Identify group project teams and brainstorm areas of interest
See Handout for Chapter 14 Developing Resources
Organizational structure
—the formal and informal manner in which tasks and responsibilities, lines of authority, channels of communication, and dimensions of power are established and coordinated within an organization.

Enabler, Mediator, Interrogator/Coordinator, Manager, Educator, Analyst/evaluator, Broker, facilitator, Initiator, Negotiator, Mobilizer, Advocate. pg. 30-31

III.8. Effective Work within an Organizational Structure

Values: principles, qualities, and practices that a designated group, individual, or culture deems inherently desirable (what you consider to be right or wrong) What are your values?

Ethics: principles based on a set of values that serve to guide one’s behavior (how you behave based on values)
NASW Code of Ethics (Handout) & CSWE

International Federation of Social Workers/International Association of Schools of Social Work Ethics in Social Work, Statement of Principles.

III.2. Acquisition of Professional Values and Ethics

Must use research to improve one’s practice, improve policy and service delivery.

Evidence-based practice: use of proven best practice based on the evidence. Must have a proven track record.

III. 11. Research Informed Practice

Other Functions of Supervisors

Using Supervision Effectively Pgs. 78-79

Problems in supervision:
see Highlight 2.6 pgs. 80-81
See Highlight 2.7 pgs. 82-83

Working Under Supervisors

Workers’ General Expectations of Supervisors: Keys to Empowerment (Halley et al., 1998; Kadushin Sheafor & Horejsi, 2003). See Highlight 2.5 p.76

Administrative Functions of Supervisors- assign cases, review case plans, discuss progress of cases, communicate to higher ups.

Educational Functions of Supervisors: Supervision and consultation-the aid workers by helping them improve their knowledge and skills, and self awareness.

X. Working Under Supervisors

Working Under Supervisors

The Pros of Conflict (Johnson, 1997). What are they? See list on page 68-69

The Cons of Conflict (Daft, 1998).
What are they? pg. 69

Conflict and its resolution

Passive-aggressiveness—secretly or covertly aggressive
E. Advantages of assertiveness
F. Assertiveness training

Final note on assertiveness training
see Figure 2.3 page 66 See the Assertiveness Continuum

VIII. Nonassertive, Assertive, and Aggressive Communication (continued)

A. Assertive communication—verbal and nonverbal behavior that permits a speaker to get points across clearly and straightforwardly, considering own rights and rights of others

B. Nonassertive communication—devaluing self completely, feeling that the other person and what that person thinks is much more important than one’s own thoughts

C. Aggressive communication—bold and dominant verbal and nonverbal behavior, own view taking precedence above all others’ points of view

VIII. Nonassertive, Assertive, and Aggressive Communication

Assertiveness involves expressing yourself without hurting others or stepping on their rights

B. Each of Us has Certain Assertive Rights
See Highlight 2.3 pgs. 62-64.

VII. Appropriate Assertiveness in the Macro Environment: Empowering Yourself and Others

G. Providing Information

H. Emphasizing People’s Strengths

I. Summarization—briefly covering the main
points of a discussion or series of communications

J. Eliciting Information
The Use of “Why?”
Overlap of Techniques

VI. Communicating with Other People in Macro Contexts (continued)

A. Simple Encouragement
B. Be Sensitive to Cultural Differences
C. Paraphrasing—restating what the other person is saying, but using different words
D. Reflective Responding—translating into words what you think the other person is feeling
E. Clarification—making certain that what another person says is understood
Interpretation—seeking meaning beyond that of clarification

VI. Communicating with Other People in Macro Contexts

Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior
Eye contact
Attentive listening. See Figure 2.2. p. 49
Facial expressions
Body positioning
Multicultural sensitivity and nonverbal behavior
Nonverbal Behavior, Communication, Empowerment, and People Who Have Physical Disabilities.

See Highlight 2.1 p. 53 What are the needs of people with visual, hearing, mobility impairments with regard to communication?
*Let's Look At A Nonverbal Video: John Cusak

A. Assertiveness
B. Conflict
C. Working with Supervisors

Beginning Relationships in Macro Practice

An interview in macro practice includes communicating and problem solving with groups of clients, agency administrators, your colleagues, politicians, community residents, and professionals from various other community agencies
See figure 2.1 on page 46: macro environment

Next Let's Look at a Video of a definition of Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors
I. Introduction

Chapter 2:
Using Micro Skills in the Macro Environment

Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities
by Karen Kirst-Ashman and Grafton Hull

See you next week

Describe what your experience has been being supervised?

What did you like about it?

What would you improve?

E. Steps in Conflict Resolution (Johnson, 1986;1997).
Establish common ground
Emphasize importance of communication
Emphasize your willingness to cooperate
Empathize with your opponent’s perspective
Evaluate both your own and your opponent’s motivation to address conflict
Come to some mutually satisfactory agreement

Conflict and its resolution

Personal Styles for Addressing Conflict (Johnson, 1997)

What are they and yours?
(Turtle, Shark, Teddy Bear, Fox)

Conflict and its resolution

A. Interpersonal Conflict—occurs any time people involved in relationships, such as friends, family members, coworkers, or neighbors, have differing needs, wants, desires, expectations, goals, or means of achieving certain ends

IX. Conflict and Its Resolution

A. Warmth—Conveying a feeling of interest, concern, well-being, and liking to another individual
Empathy—Being in tune with how other person feels, conveying the idea that you understand how he or she feels
Genuineness (Authenticity)—sharing of self by relating in a natural, sincere, spontaneous, open and genuine manner.

V. Warmth, Empathy, and Genuineness

Class Activity:
The Welfare Argument (See Handout for Instructions)
Conflict is normal; can be positive or negative; fear and discomfort with conflict is common

Forms of Conflict: What are they?

Managing Conflict

Basic parliamentary

Main motions. What are they?

Other parliamentary rules. What are some?

Parliamentary Procedure

State the ending time at the start
Let people know how much of your time they can have
Keep the group on target
End the meeting on time
Plan for follow-up meetings

Planning and Conducting Meetings

Plan ahead
Clarify purpose and establish objectives
Select participants
Select a time and place
Prepare an agenda
Start meetings on time

Planning and Conducting Meetings

Considering that you will be working in teams in this class for your class project/paper, answer the following:

How are you going to accomplish this task?
Choose a potential topic for the group project/paper.
How do you plan to deal with or minimize conflict?
How are you going to assign who does what?
Who will be the editor of the paper?
Share your findings. Five minutes for each group to share.

Working in and With Teams

In class exercise: take 30-45 minutes to answer the questions on the next slide.

Break into your teams.

Review the characteristics of Effective Teams (Larson Fatout & Rose, 1995).

Working In and With Teams

Types of Networks. Examples?

Problems with Networks. Examples?

Worker Roles in Networking. Examples?


Networks—a number of individuals or organizations that are interconnected to accomplish a goal that each feels is worthwhile
Importance of Networking. Why are they important?


Use of Self. What does this mean?
Using the media
Task skills and Managing conflict
Power. What does this mean to you?

Introduction and Leadership

Identifying Target for Change: Example?
Capacity to inspire. What does this mean
Communication Skills and Leading by example. What does this mean?
Bringing new perspectives: Big picture

Introduction and Leadership

Chapter 3:
Group Skills for Organizational and Community Change

Generalist Practice with Organizations and Communities
by Karen Kirst-Ashman and Grafton Hull

Types of Conflict (Bisno, 1988; Strom-Gottfried, 1998). What are they?

Advanced Conflict Management: Guidelines and Strategies. What are they?

Managing Conflict

Advantages of parliamentary procedure?

Disadvantages of parliamentary procedure?

Parliamentary Procedure

Parliamentary procedure—a highly structured technique used by groups of various sizes to make decisions and conduct business

Robert’s Rules of Order (Robert, 1970)—first published in 1876, and the most commonly used set of procedures

Parliamentary Procedure

See you next week

Common Problems encountered in organizations:

Impersonal behavior
Lack of rewards & recognition
Knowing written & unwritten rules
Understanding policies and working within the policies

Understanding Organizations

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What are some?

Common Problems in organizations

Total Quality Management (continued):

Employee empowerment
Use of teams & teamwork
Strong support and leadership from the top
A culture of quality

Understanding Organizations

Total Quality Management (TQM):

W. Edwards Deming
Emphasizes organizational process, excellent quality service, & empowerment of employees
Clients as customers – focused on customer needs and satisfaction – feedback
Quality is the primary goal
Accuracy + consistency + responsiveness + availability + perceived value = service experience

Understanding Organizations

Newer approaches to management:

Teamwork and team empowerment – advantages over working individually

Managing diversity – appreciation of diversity rather than conformity

Understanding Organizations

Newer approaches to management:

The learning organization …
Everyone is engaged in identifying & solving problems
Power is redistributed
Employees are encouraged to be creative
Client’s perceptions of service are sought out
Use of multidisciplinary teams
Open information is promoted
A higher purpose – the greater good

Understanding Organizations

Newer approaches to management:

Constructing a culture of caring…

Job ownership
Higher purpose
Emotional bonding
Pride in one’s work

Understanding Organizations

How to survive a bureaucracy!
Develop & USE a sense of humor
Learn to accept your mistakes
Build a support system
Give in sometimes – pick your fights!
Keep yourself fit and mentally alert
Leave your work at the office
Occasionally take your supervisors out to lunch
Do no seek ego satisfaction
Make speeches to community groups which accentuate the positives of your agency
Maintain some direct service contact
Identify your career goals & determine if they can be met within the system

Understanding Organizations

How to survive a bureaucracy!
Employ the problem-solving approach
Identify needs – generate solutions – evaluate solutions – select a solution – implement a solution – evaluate the solution
Learn how your bureaucracy is structured and functions
Remember bureaucracies are people too!
Declare a truce if you are at war with your bureaucracy
Know your work expectations
Continue to develop your knowledge and skills
Identify your strengths & limitations
Be aware that you can’t change everything!
Learn how to control your emotions

Understanding Organizations

Social Work Organizations:
ACOSA – Association for Community Organization & Social Administration
NASW-National Association of Social Workers
CSWE-Council on Social Work Education
IASSW – International Association of Schools of Social Work
IFSW – International Federation of Social Workers
ICSW – International Council on Social Work

Understanding Organizations

The macro context of organizations:
Shrinking resources
Manages health care
Outside funding sources
Legitimation (authority to perform agency functions)
Client sources

Understanding Organizations

Lines of authority – who reports to whom?
Channels of communication – how is info conveyed?
Power & Politics – who has actual power?

Legitimate power – attained because of one’s position and authority

Reward power – held because of the ability to reward others

Coercive power – held due to having the capability to punish

Referent power – held as a result of respect

Expert power – held due to a particular expertise

Understanding Organizations

The nature of organizations…

You’ll probably work in
a social work setting or
a host setting - the main service is not a social service and there is a variety of professional staff (hospital, school)

Centralized or decentralized organizations

Mission Statements – a broad and brief declaration of the agency’s purpose – usually includes the population served and the needs to be met

Goals – statements of expected outcomes – direction – elaborate on the mission statement

Organizational structure – org. chart – defines how tasks are distributed and coordinated – can be formal AND informal

Understanding Organizations

Culture-Quality Theories – Total quality management – focus on organizational culture and quality improvement – shared positive values & norms while emphasizing quality, service, performance

Systems Theory – All parts of the organization are interrelated and function together – stress constant assessment and adjustment

Understanding Organizations

Economics Theory - how organizations should proceed to maximize profit – efficiency – cost effectiveness – similar to the classical theories

Chaos Theory – focus on the complexities affecting an organization’s ability to function – seeks patterns within the complexity – recognizes the positive aspects of change and expression of human diversity

Contingency Theory – Each element of the organization is dependent on other elements – focus is on different solutions to problems depending on the variables involved – flexibility – no one best way to do something

Understanding Organizations

Human Relations Theories – focus on morale, motivation, the immediate work group (mezzo environment); Theory x and Theory Y managers

Feminist Theories – Focus on women’s self-determination & empowerment – gender filter, end of patriarchy, consciousness raising, importance of process, unity, validation of the nonrational (intuition)

The Cultural Perspective – focus on organizational culture – the norms, values, standards

Understanding Organizations

Understanding Organizations

Chapter Four

Servant Leadership:

Robert Greenleaf
Leaders should be attentive to concerns of their followers – empathize – care & nurturing
A calling – listening – empathy – healing – awareness – persuasion – conceptualization – foresight – stewardship – growth – building community ….
SOUND familiar?!


Understanding Organizations

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Understanding Organizations: Power

Positive feedback
Negative entrophy

Systems theory can serve as an umbrella approach for defining and understanding macro systems

Terms to know:

Understanding Organizations

Classical Organizational Theories
Early theories viewed the employee as having a specific task and being told how to do that task – close supervision – minimal independent functioning – emphasis on productivity – performance quantified:
Scientific Management – Taylor
Administrative Theory of Management – Fayol
Bureaucracy – Weber

Neoclassical Organizational Theories
Mid 20th century – in reaction to the classical theories, focus shifted toward the employee’s motivation – human needs – coordination of work - relationships

Understanding Organizations

Organizational theories – a way to conceptualize how organizations function:
Classical organizational theories
Neoclassical organizational theories
Human Relations theories
Feminist theories
Cultural perspective
Economics theory
Chaos theory
Contingency theory
Culture quality theories
Systems theory

Understanding Organizations

Considering that you will be working in teams in this class for your class project/grant, answer the following:
How are you going to accomplish this task?
Choose a potential topic for the group project/paper.
How do you plan to deal with or minimize conflict?
How are you going to assign who does what?
Who will be the editor of the paper?
What are your preliminary/draft goals?
Have one person type this up; include the names of those who participated and send to Dr. Waddell at the end of class.

Team Project Assignment

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New approaches to management

Working alone, identify where you work, or volunteer or some
activity and answer the questions below. Write down your
answers. Total time 20-25 minutes.

Lines of authority – who reports to whom?
Channels of communication – how is info conveyed?
Power & Politics – who has actual power?
What would you change or improve?
How would you accomplish this?

When complete, form four groups and discuss your answers.
Note any similarities or differences and solutions. Then we will
share some our responses in class.

Understanding Organizations: In class activity

Organizations (definition) (Daft, 2004). What are they?
Social services: Define?
Social agencies—organizations providing social services that are usually staffed by human services personnel (including professional social workers, members of other professions, paraprofessionals, clerical personnel, and sometimes volunteers)

Defining Organizations, Social Services, and Social Agencies

Class Activity:
Real-Life Group Dynamics (See instructional Handout)
Chapter 5: Change In Organizations
Class Activity:
Needs Assessment Guide
(See Handout for Instructions)
Have a great weekend

See you next week

Read the case example at the beginning of the chapter on pages 185-186.

Apply the PREPARE model to the case example, step by step.

You will work in your teams and have the rest of the class time to complete this assignment.

When complete, you will know how to complete a large part of your project/paper.

In-class Assignment II

In-Class Exercise

Apply PREPARE model to case example

Step 4: PREPARE—Identify relevant People of influence

Step 5: PREPARE—Assess potential costs and benefits to clients and agency

Step 6: PREPARE—Review professional and personal Risk

Step 7: PREPARE—Evaluate the potential success of a macro change process

IV. The Process of Organizational Change

The planned change process

Case Example – Deciding to go macro

Step 1: PREPARE – Identify problems to address

Step 2: PREPARE—Review your macro and personal Reality

Step 3: PREPARE—Establish primary goals

IV. The Process of Organizational Change

A. Change agent—the person who feels some change within the agency is needed

B. Action system—the people and resources you will organize and employ to work toward the needed change

C. Innovation proposal—the idea you want to implement

D. Action plan—a detailed blueprint for how to go about achieving the desired change

E. Two major tasks: set your goals and identify opposition

III. Beginning the Change Process

II. Change in Organizations

Undertaking specific projects: usually delegated, short term.

Initiating and developing programs: the need to develop a new program

Changing agency policies: the need to change the working environment.

I. Introduction

Chapter 5:
PREPARE – Decision Making for Organizational Change


Class Activity
Power point/Prezi
SLU Core Values: Excellence
and Community
Power Point/Prezi
Mid-Term Review
SLU Core Values:
Respect & Community
Chapter 6: IMAGINE-How To Implement Macro Intervention

Group exercise (if we have time):

You are all members on the block in the community.

You are meeting to choose a member to represent you at the community block captain meeting.

All of the community block captains are going to meet in order to address community concerns and set priorities.

Each block captain can bring one issue to the community block captains meeting.

Use the Imagine model to work through the changes being addressed by the group of community block captains..


Evaluate Progress

Are we meeting our goals?

What is working and what can be improved?

Are we fulfilling a need?

Are we making efficient use of resources?

Are there side effects we didn’t plan for?

Chapter 10 explores evaluation in-depth
Agency policy can be changed in 3 ways:
Organizational goals
Personnel policy
Practice policy


Mustering support: the ‘M’ in IMAGINE

After you have your idea, you need to muster support from others … Who???

The macro practice environment consists of :

The macro client system: figure 6.3: who will ultimately benefit.

Who will ultimately benefit from your group project?

The change agent system: figure 6.3. You can be the change agent or your agency can be the change agent system. The change agent initiates change by formulating the action system which attempts to influence the target system so that the target system implements the change

IMAGINE: deals with implementation and evaluation

Neutralize opposition to the plan – how?


Use persuasion

Understand the phases of resistance: negativism; resistance dies down a bit; conflict emerges; potential sabotage

Educate the decision makers
Discuss options
Suggest a committee be formed to consider the plan

Appeal to fairness!
Point out negative consequences of remaining status quo

Ask if partial change is possible
Develop rational arguments for change


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Objectives – action steps to achieve the goals
Action Steps operationalize your objectives. Who, what, when? BE PRECISE!!!
Example: “Spiro (who) will urge the two newspapers to print the stories as soon as possible (what), hopefully by Monday, November 29th (when, p. 228).


Identify assets – what are assets?

What assets can you identify for your grant project?

IMAGINE: The ‘A’ for identifying assets.

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I – start with an innovative IDEA. See case example. What was Spiro’s innovative idea?

M – MUSTER support: who do you want to influence and how to do it

A – Identify ASSETS

G – Specify GOALS and action steps

I – IMPLEMENT the plan

N – NEUTRALIZE the opposition

E – EVALUATE the progress

IMAGINE – A process for
organizational change

How to Implement Macro Intervention: Changing Agency Policy

Chapter 6: IMAGINE

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Specify goals – what do you want to accomplish?

You have already identified your primary goals in the PREPARE stage.

Now what do you really want to accomplish?

Primary goals do not specify how they will be achieved. You need objectives.

Objectives begin with words such as: improving; identifying; utilize; understand; develop, etc.

IMAGINE: ‘G’ for Goals

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I stands for Innovative Idea.

What is your innovative idea for your group project?


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The PREPARE process deals with the decision whether to pursue a macro change – the assessment and planning steps of the planned change process

IMAGINE – implementing the plan for change and evaluating your success

After completing the PREPARE process, we engage in the IMAGINE model

IMAGINE – A process for
organizational change

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The action system – people who are committed to working together to attain the macro change.

Who are the people committed to working with you on the project other than your team members?

The target system – figure 6.4 the system the worker must change or influence

Who is the target system that you wish to change in your group project?


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What are your primary goals for your group project?
Write objective(s) for each goal
Write action steps for each objective.

Break into your teams and finish your work on Assignment II.
Include additional information
on goals
and turn in
next week.

IMAGINE: Objectives and Action Steps

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What are your primary goals for your group project?
Write objective(s) for each goal
Write action steps for each objective.

Break into your teams and finish your work on your class assignments.

IMAGINE: Objectives and Action Steps

Post Application Phase:

Grants are reviewed and awarded to the proposal with the highest points

Sometimes funds are less than requested = less program

When the grant runs out (usually 1 or 2 years), you must plan to continue the program by finding other sources of funds or terminate it

Developing and managing agency resources

Budget section
Examples of different types of budgets and the budget narrative
Credentials of staff
Certifications of compliance: compliance with federal regulations
Cost sharing: indirect costs; matching funds; in-kind contribution
Agency endorsements

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Where are the grants?
Government agencies, foundations, businesses.
Check the library, internet, universities, organizations (NASW), talk to other social workers
Government grants – government agencies send out RFPs (Requests for proposals)
Foundation grants – Carnegie, Ford, Kellogg
Business & corporate grants – nonprofit organizations

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Chapter 14

Break into your groups and answer the following (10 minutes):
What type of grant will you choose to write and how it differs from other grants?
Identify similarities.
Share your findings with the rest of the class

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Writing a Grant Proposal
Parts of a grant proposal:
Cover page
Table of contents
Abstract or summary
Narrative section
Statement of the problem
Goals & objectives

Developing and managing agency resources

Writing a Grant proposal
Critical Topics:
Who will administer the grant?
What facilities or staff will be required?
What services must the organization provide? (clerical support, bookkeeping, etc)
What expenses will the organization incur?
What precautions are necessary for recordkeeping and protecting human subjects?

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Grants and contracts
How to apply for a grant? 3 steps:
Pre-application phase
Identify potential grant sources
Contact potential grant sources

Application phase
Develop draft proposal
Consult with potential grantor

Post application phase
Review grant proposal
Revise grant if requested
Plan for ending of grant

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Use technology!
Fund raising – benefits, donors, direct solicitation, foundations, creating your own organization and collecting dues
Grants & contracts

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

News Releases, Letters to the Editor & Editorials

In-class Activity
Break into your groups and write a News Release on your project. 20 minutes.

Share in class when complete.

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Where do we get the $$??
Work with the media!
Maintain relationships with media personnel
Nurture a variety of contacts with the media
If you’re an expert on a subject, let the media know!
Make sure that you have permission to speak for your agency
Make it easy for media to contact you
Learn the media’s time schedules (deadlines)
Avoid playing favorites with the media
Recognize that the media makes mistakes
Don’t be disappointed if your story doesn’t appear
Remember anything you say can and does end up in print

Developing and Managing Agency Resources

Have a great week, speaker from the library to come next week! Ask lots of questions regarding your grant proposal

Nonverbal Communication
Verbal and Nonverbal definition
Employers Top Five Communication Skills
Managing Conflict
Leadership Styles
Team Work
Robert's Rules
Conflict Styles
Inspirational Work : Passion
Servant Leadership
The Learning Organization
Steve Jobs: Success & Failure
Organizational Change
Dan Heath: Change Putting Feelings First
Kotter: The Heart of Change
Implementing Change

In your assigned group define and provide examples of each.
Role Play: Communication Skills

1See Handouts by Professor.

The mission of the social work profession is rooted in a set of core values. These core values, embraced by social workers throughout the profession’s history, are the foundation of social work’s unique purpose and perspective:
• service
• social justice
• dignity and worth of the person
• importance of human relationships
• integrity
• competence.

Vignette #1
You are a public social services worker in a rural county. Your job includes doing everything from helping older adults obtain their social security payments to investigating alleged child abuse. Within the past six months, six farm families in the county have gone bankrupt. Government farm subsidies that used to be available have been withdrawn. It’s been a bad past two years for crops. Now the banks are threatening to foreclose on the farm mortgages. Thus, the six families will literally be put out in the cold with no money and no place to go.
What do you do?

Vignette #2
You are a social worker for Burp County Social Services. It’s a rural county with a few towns of ten thousand people but none larger. Your job as intake worker is to do family assessments when people call up with problems (anything from domestic violence to coping with serious illnesses). Your next task is to make referrals to the appropriate services.
You have been hearing about a number of sexual assaults in the area. Women are expressing fear for their safety. People who have been assaulted don’t know where to turn. The nearest large cities are over eighty miles away. You have always been interested in women’s issues and advocacy for women.
Now what do you do?

Vignette #3
You have a seventy-year-old client named Harriet living in an old, near-inner-city neighborhood in a large city. Since her husband died seven years ago, she’s been living alone. She has no children. She is still in good health and likes to be independent.
The problem is that her house has been condemned for new highway construction. The plans are to tear it down within six months. There is no public housing available for older adults within five miles of where she lives. She would like to stay in the area because she’s got a lot of older adult friends there.
Now what? (Remember, don’t move Harriet.)

Exercise 1.7: Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

A. Brief description:
The ethical dilemma presented involves making tough decisions about the distribution of limited resources. You will be asked to make decisions regarding who is to receive and who is not to receive urgently needed resources.
B. Objectives:
You will be able to:
1. Recognize the fact that ethical dilemmas exist which have no perfect solution.
2. Identify your personal values with respect to the situations presented.
3. Recognize the importance of ethical decision making in social work practice.
C. Procedure:
1. Make decisions on an individual basis regarding the following situation:

You have $30,000 to spend. You must choose where it will be spent. Below are ten situations. Each situation requires spending the full amount of $30,000 in order to do any good. Dividing the money up would be useless. It would help no one.

Which of the following persons should have the $30,000 made available to help them?
a. A premature infant (born three months early) who must be maintained in an incubator and receive medical treatment.
b. A fifty-two-year-old man who needs a heart transplant in order to survive.
c. A fifty-two-year-old man who needs a heart transplant in order to survive and who also happens to be your father.
d. A five-year-old child with AIDS.
e. You, who have graduated but have been out of work for six months.
f. A divorced single mother with three children, a tenth-grade education, and nothing but the clothes on her back.
g. A person with a cognitive disability who needs to live in a group home.
h. A fourteen-year-old runaway who is addicted to cocaine and alcohol, has been prostituting herself to survive, and needs the money to enter a drug treatment program.
i. Rehabilitation for a convicted child sexual abuser who himself was sexually abused as a child.
j. A dispossessed urban family consisting of a couple in their late 20s and their three small children.
2. As an individual, decide how you would choose to spend the limited resources.
3. Subsequently, participate in a discussion involving the entire class. Your instructor can help you address the following questions and issues:
a. Who should receive priority in receiving needed funds?
b. What criteria should be used to make such decisions?
c. What personal values did you employ in making your decision?
d. What issues and considerations made decision making difficult?
e. To what extent is such a decision-making situation similar to or different from situations and decisions you have encountered in real life?
f. What could help you make such decisions more easily?

Stay Strong!
Full transcript