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Thunder and Lightning

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Katherine Lombardi

on 5 June 2014

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Transcript of Thunder and Lightning

By Katherine Lombardi, Leah Briggs, Vanessa Siegwarth, Yazemin Yilmaz, and Jillian Schwartz
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The making of a thunderstorm
Lightning and thunder is very dangerous considering that it is50,00 degrees Fahrenheit.
The basic ingredients to create a storm are moisture, heat, and unstable air mass. A thunderstorm will form on a hot day when the humidity is high. There are three stages all thunderstorms have to go through.

All About Thunder!
Lightning can reach 53,540 degrees Fahrenheit, that's about 5 times hotter than the sun!

In-cloud Lightning - the most common. It travels between positive and negative charge centers within the storm.
Cloud-to-Ground -it reaches from a storm cloud to the ground. Probably the most dangerous.
Sheet Lightning- it is within the cloud and it lights up the cloud

Extreme heat from lighting causes the cloud's air to rapidly expand. The lightning quickly goes, and the cloud cools and makes the sound wave we here as a thunder clap.
Cloud to Cloud -lightning that travels from one cloud to another, super rare.
Even More Types of Lightning!
Ribbon Lightning - A cloud-to-ground flash is blown sideways by wind, making it look like two identical bolts next to each other.
Bead Lightning- lightning that looks broken
Ball Lightning - a
very
rare type, is in a grapefruit-like ball and is short lasting
Bolt From The Blue -A bolt from a distant storm, seeming to come out of the clear sky, but really from the top/edge of a thunderstorm some mi. away.
St. Elmo's fire- a blue/green glow above pointed objects.
High-Altitude lightning- Bright colored flashes above storms. You can't see them from the ground.

Interesting Facts!
Time to learn some really cool fun facts about thunder and lightning! :P
Lightning
Lightning
Types Of Lightning
Astraphobia is the fear of thunder and lightning.
The study of lightning is known as fulminology.
Thousands of people are struck by lightning every year. Direct lightning strikes are usually fatal. Yikes!
Lightning bolts travel at speeds of up to 60,000 miles per second. That's about 100 times faster than the average plane. Whoosh!
Lightning is an electric current. Inside a cloud in the sky, frozen raindrops touch each other as they move around. All of this bumping create an electric charge. Soon, the entire cloud is full with electrical charges.
Opposites attract, and a positive charge builds up on the ground under the cloud. The ground's electrical charge concentrates around anything that sticks up. The charge coming from these points will connect with a charge from the cloud's bottom and lightning strikes. The effects of lightning are like static electricity.
How Lightning Forms
The Guinness Book of World Records lists Roy Sullivan of Virginia as the human being struck by lightning the most times: seven. This is one record you don't want to beat!
Cumulus Stage
If the updrafts are strong enough they will carry the
moisture all the way up to the stratosphere. That layer is
higher than an ordinary rainstorm. The moisture is frozen
into tiny crystals because of the cold air. This appears as
cumulus clouds. The air becomes warm because of the
droplets being turned into water vapor.

Mature Stage
The warm air continues to rise until it cannot any
more and eventually forms a cumulonimbus incus cloud. The droplets will freeze again, then they will
melt and fall as rain. Although, if there is a strong enough updraft the drops can become large so that
they won’t melt. The precipitation coming down will fall as hail. If internal turbulence or a quick change in pressure and velocity occurs, that means severe weather such as strong wind, severe lightning , and tornadoes. If the downdraft is separated from the updraft because of a change in wind speed or
direction, get ready for a supercell!

Dispensing Stage
This stage is very complicated and will start 20–30 minutes into the life of the thunderstorm. A strange occurrence called a downburst happens when the downdraft pushes out of the thunderstorm, hits the ground and spreads out. The updraft will disappear and the thunderstorm will do the same because of the cool air brought to the ground by the downdraft that stops the storm from the inside.

It's important to stay safe during a thunderstorm because so many people get hurt from them. You need to be very careful during storms. Whether you are inside or outside.
If You are outdoors:
Watch (and listen to!) the skies. Dark clouds are a sign of thunderstorms. Thunder is a dead giveaway for a storm, so find shelter when you hear it.
When need of shelter, get to a sturdy building or car. Make sure all windows are shut. Avoid sheds, baseball dugouts and bleachers, and picnic areas.
If you can't get to shelter, stay away from trees. They attract lightning. Trees can also fall. Crouch down and cover your ears in open area.
Stay out of water. It's a great conductor of electricity so lightning can easily hurt you there. Avoid metal for the same reasons.
Stay Safe!
If You're Inside
Again, avoid water. Don't wash laundry, wash dishes, shower, wash your hands or any other water-needing actions.
Don't use a wall phone. Lightning may strike phone lines outside.
Do not use electric equipment like computers and appliances during a storm. Only use cell phones if
absolutely
necessary.
Put me down!
If someone if struck by lightning
Call 911 ASAP!
hi
Rating the Storm
TS1: Weak -only a few lightning strikes
TS2:
MODERATE - 1-10 lightning strikes per five-minute
TS3: Heavy - 10-20 lightning strikes per five-minute
TS4: INTENSE -20-30 lightning strikes per five-minute interval
TS5: EXTREME- more than 30 lightning strikes per five-minute
TS1: Weak -only a few lightning strikes
TS2:
In some rare instances, earthquakes appear to generate the same electrical discharge as thunderstorms
classification
Single-cell, multicell cluster, multicell
lines and super cells are the 4
different types of storms.

Supercell Thunderstorm
Tracking a thunderstorm
Tracking a thunderstorm is like tracking tornadoes. Three times a day, a nation-wide storm out-look is presented in the United States. The movement of the weather systems that may generate thunderstorms are tracked by satellites. Once they are formed they are tracked by satellites and radars. And when they figured out who it would hit hardest and warn them as soon as possible. Then they will take precautions and warn all the areas around that area.
Single-cell
lightning is essentially a gigantic electrical spark that results from billions of volts of static electricity
Also known as air-mass thunderstorms, single-cell storms are typical summer thundershowers.
They can also follow closely behind a cold front when the air is cold and unstable.
There are few air-mass thunderstorms that are severe.
They last only about 20-30 minutes.
Multicell clusters
This is the most common form of a thunderstorm.
Multicells may become one line of thunderstorms or more, though they start off as clusters of storms.
Each cell of a cluster can last the same amount of time as a single-cell storm.
multicell lines
Also known as squall lines.
It is a long line of severe thunderstorms that produce heavy precipitation, hail, frequent lightning, strong winds, and occasionally tornadoes or waterspouts.
Supercell
Supercells are large, severe storms which appear to rotate.
Studies show 90% of supercells bring severe weather such as tornadoes high on the scale , 80 mph winds, flash floods, and hail stones 4 inches in diameter.
Annually, an estimated 16 million thunderstorms happen across the world.
Thanks for Watching our presentation!
Sometimes people struck by lightning can get interesting markings left by the bolt
Lightning can be seen as different colors because of the lightning, but really it's always yellow.
Lightning is also like static electricity in a way. They can both make your hair frizz up, and they will both give you a shock.
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