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Supporting the Struggling Reader

By: Maria Ionna Bennakis, Jose Gillespie, Marina Mancini, Shahrzad Qaderi and Amanda Forbes

Amanda Forbes

on 23 November 2013

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Transcript of Supporting the Struggling Reader

Intermediate Readers
-years of being passed through the grades in school without building reading skills and comprehension
- lack of schema
- lack of motivation
- lack of interesting reading material
- fear of failure
- dyslexia or other disorders/learning disabilities
Supporting the Struggling Reader
Maria Ionna Benakis
Jose Gillespie
Marina Mancini
Shahrzad Qaderi
Amanda Forbes
• Time, time, time.
Helping struggling readers takes focus, time and training!
• Access to training.
This often requires time away from the classroom, which impacts all students (including our struggling students), access to professional development opportunities and money.

. A lack of funding is pervasive throughout our educational system. In order to provide our students with the resources they need, including access to professionals, literature and technology, school boards, schools and teachers need more access to designated funding for struggling students.

Class size
. Tying in to lack of funding is the issue of increased class size. Without increased support in the form of educational assistants, focused time with students is becoming more and more difficult.

Home and School Connection
“According to the experienced educators, reading at home reinforces the skills and concepts students must acquire. Additionally, when parents support their children by taking the time to listen and help them read, it signals that reading is important. In many schools, 20 minutes of reading is required every night, and if students do not bring a signature back, they go to the Reading Opportunity Room to make up missed reading from the evening before.” (Kelly and Campbell)
-play an active role
-read at home for pleasure
-motivate their child by helping them find books they are interested in
-use reading games
-find opportunities to practice the alphabet with their child

Parents Can:
Resources for Parents
-10 things parents need to know to help a struggling reader
-where parents can find extra help
-reading activities
-online resources
-tips for parents of preschoolers

-weak depth of literacy skills and strategies required to summarize info

-fluency; decoding skills fail to construct meaning
--> extra focus on phonics

-a gap in transition from learning to read to reading to learn
Junior Readers
-preview text
-read statements aloud for additional support
-step by step explicit instructions
-direct reading comprehension instruction
-collaborative learning
-diverse text selection
-ongoing formative assessment

Intervention Categories
-reading comprehension
-word study
-multiple components

-never too late
-focus on words and text
-great benefits from learning specific word meanings and concepts
-develop an appropriate focus

Strategic Intervention Resources
-reading toolbox
-Mcgraw Hill programme and free downloads
-middle school reading activities
-reading intervention techniques

Struggling Readers, struggle with reading comprehension skills. They struggle with the use of word knowledge while comprehending texts, monitoring comprehension, and fix-up strategies. They may also fail to understand key words, the way sentences relate to one another, and have difficulties in reading fluency. Teachers must be active participants in their students’ learning and teach them the skills necessary to improve reading comprehension. This includes decoding skills, building fluency, building prior knowledge, teaching new vocabulary, motivating the students, and keeping them engaged. For increased effectiveness, teachers should assess the strengths of their students and build on their weaknesses, teaching strategies one or two at a time while integrating them into their regular instruction.
Strategies for Struggling Readers
Instruction - Teacher
• Activation of Prior Knowledge
o Brain storming, predicting, pre-reading questioning, topic talking, picture walks before read-alouds, guided and independent reading
• Teacher Read-Alouds
o Focus on a few vocabulary words that students may not understand and guide them to figure them out
• Vocabulary Instruction
o New vocabulary words should be taught prior to reading to lessen the confusion
• Comprehension Checklist
o Make accessible to students with pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading strategies
• Sustained silent reading of student selected texts
o Students should be able to self-select texts that they are interested in to practice independently and should be monitored and held accountable for the material read
• Scaffolded Retelling
o Story mapping forms: title, setting, characters, problem important events, outcome/reaction, and theme

Strategies for Struggling Readers
Infrastructure - School
• School-wide Reading Program
o Schools can work together as a team, building a program that supports all students: large blocks of uninterrupted scheduled reading time, teach students to find interesting and age-appropriate books, staff should communicate passion of reading and research best practices of reading instruction
• Extended day literacy program
o Afterschool program consisting of guided reading and literacy related activities
• Home Reading Programs
o Promote reading at home that are at their independent reading level to practice their newly gained skills and strategies

Reading Recovery

“A highly effective short-term literacy intervention for the lowest achieving grade 1 students. The aim is to bring the previously lowest achieving students in literacy learning to a level in reading and writing where they are able to engage in classroom instruction. Reading Recovery students receive daily 30 minute 1:1 individually designed lessons delivered by a specially trained Reading Recovery teacher. This series of lessons is supplementary to ongoing effective classroom instruction.”

• Students meet in small groups each day during the allotted language block, rotating through stations that allow students to practice previously taught skills
• Buddy up with a better reader
• Reading buddies with animals
Interventions Continued
• Reading comprehension instruction has evolved over the years, and will continue to do so
• Teachers need to evolve teaching strategies
• Begin as early as possible, using multiple strategies and activities
• Strategies best taught while in the context of actual reading
• Teachers need to work together and share what works for them

- provide choice in reading material
- provide learning activities that include talking and thinking with peers
-step by step explicit instructions
-direct reading comprehension instruction
- Guide reading with multimodal texts - texts with relevant informational topics and short texts related to social issues
- moderated marking
- conferencing: talk, talk, talk!
-ongoing formative assessment

- well-stocked library with great variety of high-interest books
- train teachers!! Opportunities for professional development!
- department meetings with focused time on reading
- school coordinated resource support with small group help with a reading expert and 30-40 minutes of intervention on top of regular classroom reading instruction
- scheduling to provide common planning or prep time for teachers teaching the same grade or division to facilitate collaboration
-materials and resources
- data collector for sharing information when students change grades or schools
-ongoing assessment

-more time is needed for these students to catch up and feel successful, but it is never too late!
-homogeneous reading intervention groups have the greatest success
-focus on rapid progression with interesting, targeted texts!
-loss of class time is detrimental: need to intervene with students in addition to class time
-NO phonics instruction in intermediate grades!! It does not help the students read better and it definitely does not make them want to read more!!!

Intervention Categories

-reading comprehension
-written response to reading
-decoding/high frequency words
- word study: vocabulary, definitions

Role of the Teacher
o Providing students with effective instruction that focuses on the personal interests of the students within the class and through incorporating diverse reading material (Fisher and Ivey, 2006).

o Playing a critical role in assessment and instruction through offering struggling readers and writers with a variety of assessment products (Casey, 2009)

o Providing struggling readers with additional one-on-one assistance (Fisher and Ivey, 2006).

o Using multiple strategies such as summarizing, clarifying, questioning and predicting (Cooper et al., 1998).

o Providing authentic reading levels that vary from easy levels to grade specific levels (Cooper et al., 1998).

o Using scaffolding, literacy groups and providing a safe learning environment (Casey, 2006).

Ministry of Education
Early identification - Implementation
- Grade 1, should be a process to implementation and diagnostic assessment
- The teacher recognizes struggling student
- access to diagnostic assessment services specialized interventions, and appropriate instruction
- seamless continuity between regular classroom instruction and interventions
- cooperation among qualified staff
Successful Intervention
• carefully planned assessments that allow for continual monitoring of the child's response and lead to modifications of the intervention when indicated
• teaching methods that are supported by research on how children learn to read and how they should be taught
• considerable attention to the materials used (e.g., predictable, patterned, easy-to-more-difficult texts), with a focus on interesting and enjoyable texts at appropriate reading levels
• an array of activities (e.g., word study, reading, rereading, and writing)

from the Ministry of Education
Think Literacy - Reading

Supporting Student Success in Literacy

Think Literacy – Cross-Curriculum Approaches, Grade 7-12

Reading Strategies
A struggling reader is a student who is struggling with reading as well as reading comprehension skills. Throughout this presentation we have looked at a variety of tools, strategies and resources that we not only help the students, but also the teacher as well as parents. From what the teachers role is in the classroom, to what parents can do at home there are plenty of resources, to assist a struggling reader develop his/her reading confidence but also their self confidence and love of reading.

o Charlotte's Web by E.B. White

o Matilda; Charlie and the Chocolate Factory by Roald Dahl

o Holes by Louis Sachar

o The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry

o Lord of the Flies by William Golding

o The Outsiders by Kevin Henkes

o Twisted Journeys Series by various authors
Resources for Teachers

o It’s Okay to be Different; It’s Okay to Make Mistakes, The I’m Not Scared Book; The Feel Good Book by Todd Parr

o One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish; Fox in Socks, ABC An Amazing Alphabet Book by Dr. Seuss

o The Giving Tree by Shel Silverstein

o The Very Hungry Caterpillar Eric Carle

o Frindle by Andrew Clements
Resources for Teachers
Resources for Teachers
PBS Kids provides reading games and activities for children.

ABCYa provides activities that can help develop reading skills for students in Kindergarten to Grade 5.

Mrs. Perkins’ Dolce Words featuring flashcards, activities, worksheets and stories.

Resources for Teachers
Raz-Kids an online guided reading program providing leveled reading books for students and activities that check for comprehension. Teachers are able to register their class allowing each student to have a personal log in.

The Horne Book Magazine is a website for educators which provides book lists and classroom tips as well as many other resources.

Children’s Book Council features book lists that have been selected by children and young adults.

Love Reading 4 Kids contains different book lists for struggling and reluctant readers from ages 5 to 14+.

Case Study
o This case study focuses on a grade seven teacher named Sharon who has developed literacy groups within her classroom in order to help improve the reading and writing skills of struggling students (Casey, 2009).

o Sharon begins class by posing an interesting image or question to her students. From here they move in to their literacy groups, giving her the opportunity to circulate the classroom while providing extra assistance to struggling students.

Cast Study
Sharon uses learning groups in two different ways:
 A homogenous set of students who are placed together to negotiate new vocabulary. They are ultimately placed together in order to introduce and review reading and writing strategies.

 A heterogeneous set of students who are placed together when students are reading books with curriculum requirements. They are grouped according to learning interests.

Case Study
Sharon deems that the literature circles are so successful within her classroom for many different reasons
 Sharon spends much time reflecting carefully on how her students respond to their work as she develops her daily lesson plans.

 She spends time early in the year creating a safe learning environment where all students feel welcome and comfortable to learn together.
 Sharon deals with individual student levels and student interests through providing scaffolding to help each group and individual students.

Sharon highlights the importance of how she sees herself teaching nineteen individual students as opposed to a class of nineteen students (Casey, 2009).
- Casey, Heather. (2009). Engaging the disengaged: using learning clubs to motivate struggling
 adolescent readers and writers. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 52(4) 284-294.
- Cooper, J.D., et al. (1998). Stopping reading failure: Reading intervention for intermediate-grade students. Retrieved from: http://www.eduplace.com/intervention/soar06/articles/cooper.html
- Closs, Ellen. Teaching reading comprehension to struggling and at-risk readers: strategies that work. http://www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/TeachingReadingComprehensiontoStrugglingReaders-MastersThesisbyEllen.pdf
- Crystal Kelly, Linda Campbell. (2012) Helping Struggling Readers. http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/literacy/articles/helping-struggling-readers/
- Fisher, D., & Ivey G. (2006) Evaluating the Interventions for Struggling Adolescent Readers. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. Vol. 50(3). Pg. 180 -189.
- Gina Biancarosa and Catherine E. Snow. (2006) Reading Next—A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy: A Report to Carnegie Corporation of NewYork.http://carnegie.org/fileadmin/Media/Publications/PDF/ReadingNext.pdf
- http://lesleyuniversitycrrlc.wordpress.com/2012/04/30/engaging-struggling-readers-in-the-intermediate-and-middle-grades/
- http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar04/vol61/num06/Phonics-Instruction-for-Older-Students¢-Just-Say-No.aspx
- http://www.eduplace.com/intervention/soar06/articles/cooper.html
- York Region District School Board. 2012. Reading Recovery.http://www.yrdsb.ca/Programs/ReadingRecovery/Pages/default.aspx
- Ontario Ministry of Education (2013). Early Reading Strategy - Help for Children with Reding Difficulties. Retrieved from Ontario Ministry of Education.
- Ontario Ministry of Education (2013). Supporting Students Success in Literacy. Retrieved from Ontario Ministry of Education. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/- brochure/literacy/index.html
- Ontario Ministry of Education. Think Literacy: Cross-Curricular Approaches, Grades 7-12. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education. http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/studentsuccess/thinkliteracy/files/Preface.pdf
- Scammacca, N., Roberts, G., Vaughn. S., Edmonds, M., Wexler, J., Reutebuch, C. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (2007), Interventions for adolescent struggling readers: A meta-analysis with implications for practice. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction. http://www.sde.idaho.gov/site/rti/resourcesDocs/Secondary/Interventions%20for%20Adolescent%20Struggling%20Readers-A%20Meta%20Analysis%20with%20Implications%20for%20Practice.pdf
- www.readinga-z.com
• Behaviour management.
When focusing on struggling readers, behaviours in the remainder of the class may escalate, especially in older grades. Conversely, struggling readers may become defensive about their struggles and act out themselves.
• Home support.
To be successful in reaching our struggling students in our quest to have them progress to reading and comprehending at grade level, parental support is needed. This may take various forms: home reading, rides to or from school due to “tutoring” or intervention groups, library trips, parent/teacher meetings or just simple encouragement!
-teacher professional development
-teacher teams
-department meetings and sharing info
-school coordinated literacy program
-tutoring one on one support opportunities
-materials and resources
-ongoing assessment

Reasons Junior Students Struggle with Reading:

• Attendance problems
• Behaviour problems
• Low academic achievement
• Low socioeconomic statuses
• Mobility issues
• Retention
• Attention Deficit Disorder

Primary Readers
Reasons Primary Students Struggle with Reading:
Reasons Intermediate Students Struggle with Reading
Popular Books for Early Years and Primary Readers:
Popular Books for Junior and Intermediate Readers:
Full transcript