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Human Body Scrapbook

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by

Alex Lee

on 5 December 2014

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Transcript of Human Body Scrapbook

Human
Body
Scrapbook

Immune System
Integumentary System
Circulatory System
The circulatory system is a vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, oxygen and other gases, and hormones to and from cells. Without the circulatory system, the body would not be able to fight disease or maintain a stable internal environment — such as proper homeostasis.
Muscular System
The main purpose of the Muscular System is movement. Muscles are the only tissue is the body that can contract and move other parts of the body.
Skeletal System
The Skeletal System mainly provides movement, support blood cell production, and storage for calcium.
By: Alex Lee
Date: 12-1-2014
Science 7.7
-BONES:
The support for our body come from the bones and they form how our appearance is beyond our skin.
-CARTILAGE:
Cartilage surrounds some of the ends of bones to prevent grinding of bones together and helps to absorb shock.
Sources:
-University of Maryland Medical Center

-Medline Plus

-Inner Body

-National Liberty of Medicine

-Live Science

-Bright Hub Education
-LIGAMENTS:
Connects bone to bone.
-MUSCLE:
Almost all movement you do is with Skeletal Muscle which is attached to your bones.
-TENDON:
Serves to move the bone or structure.
-NERVES:
Control all of your movements.
How does the Circulatory System rely on the Skeletal System?
The bones protect the heart from any harm with the ribs.
DISORDERS:
Osteoporosis:

Causes your bones
to become weak and more easy to break.
To help prevent Osteoporosis, don't smoke, exercise, and maintain your strong bones with a diet rich in calcium and Vitamin D.
Osteogenesis Imperfectia:

Much like Osteoporosis, this disorder causes brittle bones. Sometimes bones break for no reason. Treatments include exercise, pain medicine, physical therapy, wheelchairs, braces, and surgery.
Circulatory Muscle:
Circulatory muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, and appear more textured than Smooth Muscle cells. They are under involuntary control.

Skeletal Muscle:
Occur in fibers that are attached to the skeleton. They are under voluntary control and are more textured than Smooth Muscle cells.

Smooth Muscle:
Located in the walls of hollow visceral organs, minus the heart, and appear spindle-shaped. This muscle is under involuntary control.
How does Skeletal Muscle contract to make movement?
The muscles bind together to create cross-bridges and then they slide past each other, thus contracting.
Disorders:
Muscular Dystrophy:
A group of more than 30 disorders, they all include muscle loss and weakness. Some forms of MD occur in infancy or childhood, all forms of MD grow worse as the person's muscles get weaker. Most people with MD eventually lose the ability to walk. There is no cure for MD, however, some treatments can help with the symptoms. They include physical and speech therapy, orthopedic devices, surgery, and medications.
Myositis:
means inflammation of the muscles that you use to move your body. An injury, infection, or autoimmune disease can cause it. Two kinds of Myositis are
Polymyositis
and
Dermatomyositis
. Polymyositis causes muscle weakness, usually in the muscles closest to the trunk of your body. Dermatomyositis causes muscle weakness, plus a skin rash. Other symptoms may include fatigue after walking or standing, tripping or falling, trouble swallowing or breathing. There is no cure for these, but you can treat the symptoms. Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis are first treated with high doses of a Corticosteroid. Other options include medications, physical therapy, exercise, heat therapy, assistive devices, and rest.
They work together in the heart to pump blood.
1:How are the Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries alike?
2: Describe the composition of blood.
Blood is made up of plasma; a mixture of proteins, wastes, gasses, nutrients and enzymes. Blood is also made up of red blood cells; which carry oxygen, electrolytes; which come mostly as sodium ions, platelets; small fragments of bone marrow cells (not really classified as cells though), and leokocytes, otherwise known as white blood cells that fight off foreign invaders.
DISORDERS:
Cardiovascular disease:
Caused by narrowed, blocked or stiffened blood vessels that prevent your heart, brain or other parts of your body from receiving enough blood. Symptoms can include; chest pain, shortness of breath, and pain in the neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen or back.
Cardiomyopathy:
The thickening and stiffening of heart muscle. In early stages of Cardiomyopathy, you may have no symptoms. As the condition worsens, symptoms may include breathlessness with exertion or at rest, fatigue, or irregular heartbeats that feel rapid, pounding or fluttering.
The immune system is a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system fights invaders and substances that invade the body and cause sickness. The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work in harmony to keep the body healthy.
Pathogen:
a microorganism that causes disease in its host.
Active Immunity:
the immunity that results from the production of antibodies by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen.
Passive Immunity:
the short-term immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal.
Antigen:
a toxin or other foreign substance that induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies.
Antibody:
a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances that the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood.
-Science Daily

-Dictionary.com

-WebMD

-Mayo Clinic

-BBC/British Broadcasting Corperation

-Des Moines University
Why are Antibodies effective against bacteria but not viruses?
Antibiotics usually work by targeting some necessary life process that goes on within a cell. (protein production, gene expression, or other processes like membrane or cell wall production) For viruses, you have to realize that viruses don't do these things on their own. You can't target something that doesn't exist in the agent you want to fight off.
DISORDERS:
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus):
People with Lupus develop autoimmune antibodies that can attach to tissues throughout the body. The joints, lungs, blood cells, nerves, and kidneys are commonly affected in lupus. Treatment often requires daily oral prednisone, a steroid that reduces immune system function.
Multiple Sclerosis:
Effects the brain and spinal cord. Early MS symptoms include weakness, tingling, numbness, and blurred vision. Other signs are muscle stiffness, thinking problems, and urinary problems. Treatment can relieve MS symptoms and delay disease progression.
The Integumentary system is made up of the skin, hair, nails, glands, and nerves. Its main function is to act as a barrier to protect the body from the foreign outside world. The system also works to retain bodily fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste, and maintain proper body temperature.
How does the Integumentary system help the body keep homeostasis?
The skin functions in homeostasis include protection, regulation of body temperature, sensory reception, water balance, synthesis of vitamins and hormones, and absorption of materials.
How is the Integumentary system a major part of the Immune system?
Skin serves as a barrier between you and pathogens. Therefore it can be viewed as part of the immune system. However, if you get a scratch or cut, and bacteria gets into the wound, then the immune system will be important for getting rid of the invader and for removal of damaged tissue in order to promote tissue healing.
DISORDERS:
Acne:

Acne, a disorder of the hair and oil glands, is among the most common conditions treated by dermatologists. Acne presents itself as red bumps and pimples on the face, chest and back. Treatments include vitamin A products, salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxides, and antibiotics.
Vitiligo:

Vitiligo is a condition in which the cells that produce skin color — melanocytes — no longer function properly. Some are attacked by the Immune system. Sometimes, the cells mysteriously die or stop working. The best treatment for Vitiligo is a special light surgery.
Endocrine System
The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and release hormones, chemicals produced in the human body that control the activity of cells or organs.
What is Homeostasis and what is its roll in the Endocrine system?
Homeostasis:
A property of an organism or system that helps it maintain its parameters within a normal range of values.
The endocrine system produces hormones. To maintain homeostasis, the controlled features are body temperature, water content and blood sugar levels. However, to include the endocrine system, only the blood sugar levels are involved.
What's a negative feedback mechanism?
A negative feedback in the body is where a change the level of one chemical leads directly to a reduction in it's formation, reduction in it's absorption or increase in its excretion. Negative feedbacks are important in maintaining homeostasis in the body.
Example of negative feedback:
Cortisol is a hormone that is important for carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Too much cortisol can be harmful as it suppresses the immune system and prevents growth and repair of damaged tissue.
DISORDERS:
Type 1 Diabetes:
Is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow glucose to enter cells to produce energy. Some of the symptoms include... increased thirst, frequent urination, or extreme hunger. people who have Type 1 Diabetes may take Insulin as a part of their treatment because their bodies need it to keep their blood levels in a healthy state.
Type 2 Diabetes:
Is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes glucose, a very important source or energy for your body. Some of the symptoms may include... increased thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, and fatigue. Treatments include... healthy eating, regular exercise, possibly, diabetes medication or insulin therapy, or and blood sugar monitoring.
Soft Muscle cell:
Skeletal Muscle cell:
Cardiac Muscle cell:
Excretory System
The Excretory System is the system of an organism's body that carries out the function of excretion, the human bodies' action of discarding unneeded products. The Excretory System's duty is the removal of wastes made by homeostasis.
Excretion:
to separate and eliminate from an organic body; separate and expel from the blood or tissues, as waste or harmful matter.
Disorders:
Nephritis:
Nephritis is the inflammation of one or both kidneys. Herein the organs of body get affected through autoimmune disorders. This is caused by the inflammation of the first part of Nephron, the basic kidney unit, which is called Glomerulus. Symptoms include: smelly urine, pain in lower abdomen, and blood in urine. Antibiotics can be used to treat this condition.
Kidney Stones:
These are smaller sized deposits of Calcium and can be seen in the Nephrons. The stones could also increase or go down to urinary tract causing extreme pain. The stone may also get infected causing further set of complications. Some of the symptoms include... vomiting or nausea, painful urination, or sharp pain of the back or the side. Reduced size of stones tends to pass out of body without requiring any surgery. The treatment may consist of just taking lot of fluids so that the stones are washed down.
Reproductive System:
The reproductive system is a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing a new life. Scientists argue that the reproductive system is among the most important systems in the entire body. Without the ability to reproduce, a species dies.
Endometriosis:
A condition involving colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. Bleeding into the abdomen irritates the lining membrane, the peritoneum, and causes abdominal pain.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH):


The swelling of the prostate gland which surrounds the base of the male bladder and urethra causing difficulty urinating, dribbling, and Nocturia.
Mitosis:
When a cell divides it's self to make two identical copies.
Meiosis:
is a special type of cell division. Unlike mitosis, the way normal body cells divide, meiosis results in cells that only have half the usual number of chromosomes, one from each pair. For that reason, meiosis is often called reduction division.
Nervous System:
The Nervous System is made up of of the brain, Spinal Cord, Sensory Organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.
(Not drawn by me)
Central Nervous System:
the complex of nerve tissues that controls the activities of the body. In vertebrates it comprises the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System:
the part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting the optic nerve, the spinal nerves, and the autonomic nervous system.
Cerebral Hemisphere:
The left cerebral hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body. Depending on the severity, a stroke affecting the left cerebral hemisphere may result in functional loss or motor skill impairment of the right side of the body, and may also cause loss of speech.
Cerebellum:
Receives information from the Sensory Systems, the Spinal Cord, and other parts of the Brain and then regulates motor movements. The Cerebellum coordinates voluntary movements such as posture, balance, coordination, and speech, resulting in smooth, balanced muscular activity.
Brain Stem:
The Medulla Oblongata often just referred to as the Medulla, is the lower half of the Brain Stem continuous with the Spinal Cord. Its upper part is continuous with the Pons.The Medulla contains the Cardiac, Respiratory, Vomiting and Vasomotor centers dealing with heart rate, breathing and blood pressure.
Epilepsy:
High fevers in young children may trigger seizures which are short in duration, easily controlled and, typically, have no permanent aftereffects. Epilepsy is a specific condition which may occur at any age, seizures are more intense, longer lasting in duration, and recur with some frequency. The condition may be controlled with medication, or if unresponsive to drugs, may require surgery.
Multiple Sclerosis:
MS is a disease of unknown cause that manifests as multiple hard plaques of degeneration of the insulating layer of nerve fibers in the central nervous system. The loss of insulation allows “short circuiting” of nerve impulses. Depending upon where the degeneration occurs, patients may suffer paralysis, sensory disturbances or blindness.
Respiratory System
The primary function of the Respiratory System is to supply the blood with Oxygen in order for the blood to deliver Oxygen to all parts of the body. The Respiratory System does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale Oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.
Some features of the Aveoli that
allow gas exchange are...
They give the Lungs a really big surface area.
They have moist, thin walls.
They have a lot of tiny blood vessels, Capillaries.
Oxygen diffuses from the air in the Alveoli into the blood.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the air in the Alveoli.
Oxygen enters the blood from the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled out of the blood into the lungs. The blood serves to transport both gases. Oxygen is carried to the cells. Carbon dioxide is carried away from the cells.
DISORDERS:
How are Carbon Dioxide and
Oxygen transported through the blood?
Emphysema (COPD):

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, of which emphysema is one of, results in progressive destruction of the air sacs in the lungs and loss of respiratory membrane for oxygen exchange. The cause of COPD is long-term smoking.
Pneumoconiosis:
A generic name for conditions where toxic particles become trapped in the lungs and cause symptoms and disability such a “black lung” or “miner’s lung” disease. Terms specific to the particulate matter may be given such as asbestosis.
Digestive System
The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The digestive system is divided into two major parts: The digestive tract (alimentary canal) is a continuous tube with two openings: the mouth and the anus.
Mouth:
Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.
Esophagus:
Carries food, liquids, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach.
Stomach:
The stomach secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.
Small Intestine:
The main function of the small intestine is absorption of nutrients and minerals from food.
Large Intestine:
The major function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter and transmit the useless waste material from the body.
Anus:
Controls the expulsion of the feces.
Liver:
The Liver detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs.
Pancreas:
Functioning as an exocrine gland, the pancreas excretes enzymes to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food.
Gallbladder:
The gallbladder holds bile produced in the liver until it is needed for digesting fatty foods in the duodenum of the small intestine.
Why is the digestion of large food molecules essential?
Many compounds from the food we consume is not suitable for our tissues. Therefore, this food needs to be broken down and reassembled. Also, the molecules need to be very small to be absorbed in the villi in the intestine.
Digestive enzymes are proteins that break specific molecular bonds. The bonds release smaller molecules from the larger food particles in the digestive system.
Why do we need enzymes for digestion?
DISORDERS:
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD):
Weakness of the valve between the esophagus and stomach may allow stomach acid to reflux into the esophagus and irritate and inflame the lining. This results in chest pain.
Jaundice:
Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes from a backup of bile metabolic by-products from the blood into body tissues. May result from blockage of the ducts draining bile from the liver into the intestines or excessive breakdown of red blood cells. Hemoglobin from destroyed RBCs is broken down, and in part, ends up in bile secretions.
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