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Transcript of modernism
194o although technically the movement lasted until 1965. Modernism was largely impacted by World War 1
which lasted from 1914 to 1918. The horrors of the war
shaped the predominately pessimistic attitudes
of Modernist authors (what is the world coming to???) Characteristics of Modernism: ~ Open form and free verse are popular in modernist poetry
~Stream of consciousness (interior monologue) was popular in books (captured the sense of solitude)
~ Pessimistic, negative tone
~ Controversial subject matter ie; abortion, war, suicide, ect...
~ Many authors lacked formal training... literature was once a refined art form but they made it more accessible to the masses
~ Used a mismatch of style (layering of meanings and contrasting styles)
~ Introduced a new form of narration- the "unreliable" narrator making readers second guess everything about how the novel would work. Authors from the Modernism Movement: F. Scott Fitzgerald- The Great Gatsby, This Side of Paradise, Tender is the Night
Ernest Hemingway- For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Old Man and the Sea, Farewell to Arms
T.S. Elliot-The Hippopotamus, Hysteria, The Waste Land
James Joyce-Ulysses, Dubliners, Finnegans WakeGertrude Stein-Three Lives, Tender Buttons Modernism in Art: Modernism in the art world is really just a mixing bowl of smaller art movements such as Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, and later Dadaism and Futurism.
Like Modernist authors, artists of the time moved away from the traditional rules in color, composition and perspective.
Also, like Modernist authors they were influenced by the scientific discoveries of the day that questioned the solidity of the real world Modernist Architecture: Modernist Architecture like any other Modernist art form was a move away from traditional architecture
It emphasized shape, form, light, and transparency,instead of of decorative embellishment and local style Frank Lloyd Wright: Falling water Le Corbusier:Notre Dame du Haut Le Corbusier:Villa Savoye After World War 1, the 'Jazz Age' hit. This time from 1918 to 1929, also known as the "Roaring 20's" was a very productive period for Modernist authors. Many artists from around the world came to Europe, especially France, causing Gertrude Stien to call them "The Lost Generation." Common Themes include loneliness and isolation During the 1920's the Volstead Act was passed in America and the Prohibition began. Flappers, bootleggers, and speakeasies became common subject matter in many Modernist works (The Great Gatsby).
Authors of the time were also famous for their uncontrollable drinking and breaking the law became chic.
"Write drunk, Edit sober"- Ernest Hemingway The Modernist movement was a global movement which focused primarily in America and moved to Europe with the Lost Generation. Many artists from the time were American such as Fitzgerald, T.S. Eliot, and Hemingway. However, as they traveled they incorporated themes from other countries and cultures into their writing Postwar prosperity in the 1920's led to the masses desire to be entertained. Also, educational reform led to an increase in literacy rates and therefore a bigger demand for literature. For the first time, women, minorities and the poor were able to make their voice heard in the literary world. These progressions led to the Harlem Renaissance with authors such as Langston Hughes and the Imagist movement with women authors such as Hilda Dolittle. However, these efforts also strengthened the distinction of "high" and "low" art as literature was formally dominated by wealthy, Caucasian males. Ernest Hemingway Cameron Householder F. Scott Fitzgerald Childhood: Born: Oak Park, Illinois on July 21, 1899
To Clarence Edmond who was a physician and Grace Hall
Hemingway was the oldest of six children.
Grace took Hemingway to museums and exposed him to the arts,
although Hemingway often rebelled against his mother and her 'puritanical views.'
His father took him on many hunting and fishing trips where he developed his fondness for both of these activities Young Adulthood: Hemingway graduated from Oak Park High School in 1917 where he contributed to the school newspaper.
His first job was as a reporter for the Kansas City Star. However this was cut short when he enlisted in World War 1 as an ambulance driver.
He was injured my mortar fire in Italy and returned home a hero and was
often asked to speak before civic groups After the war, Hemingway became a reporter for the Toronto Star and Star Weekly which sent him as a foreign corespondent in 1921.
He and his first wife, Hadley Richardson settled in Paris where they met many of the artist that where there such as Ezra Pound, James Joyce, and most significantly Gertrude Stein Hemingway learned how to be a writer from Stein as well as the elements of literature that directly affected his writing By 1925 Hemingway was moving away from reporting and toward writing full time. However, his reporting career continued to be a major influence in his writing. His minimalistic style has its roots in the close accurate observation and short concise sentences required in journalism. A consistent theme in many of Hemingway's work was men who responded to adversity in a courageous way. To Hemingway courage was demonstrating grace under pressure, a definition influenced by what he saw on the battlegrounds of Italy in World War 1 and throughout his time in the hospital. Hemingway's Nobel Peace Prize in Literature speech in 1954 "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style.” (nobelprize.org). He couldn't attend the ceremony because of injuries caused by two consecutive plane crashes. In 1928 Hemingway left Paris, married Pauline Pfeiffer and moved to Key West, Florida. However he traveled frequently and became a sport fisherman in the Gulf of Mexico. His travels took him to Spain to cover the Spanish Civil war for the North American Newspaper Alliance. While there he took an interest in bullfighting which makes its way into many of his novels In 1933 Hemingway took his first African safari. His experiences there made there way into more of his books such as Green Hills of Africa. In 1939 he moved to Cuba and married newswoman Martha Gellhorn.
When the U.S. entered World War 2 Hemingway was sent to Europe as a war corespondent and participated in the Allied Normandy Invasion. When he returned home to Cuba he turned his personal yacht into a self-appointed anti-submarine craft. During this time his literary production and success declined. In 1944 he married Mary Welsh. When Fidel Castro took over Cuba, Hemingway moved to Ketchum, Idaho (1959) That same year he began treatments for depression. He shot himself on July 2, 1961 In Paris he found himself surrounded by the intellectuals and artists of the age who challenged him and each other. Everyday Hemingway would write 1,000 words and then revise those down to about 300, making sure his sentences were short and concise. Ernest Hemingway's unique style also influenced many modern authors including James Jones, Nelson Algren and Norman Mailer Analysis of Writing: Hemingway's writing is very to the point and lacks ornamentation and unnecessary detail a stark difference to Realist writers such as Dickens.
Instead of recreating writing, Hemingway and other Modernist authors make their readers question the reality presented in their novels.
Scholars call his style the 'Iceberg' because he reveals very little about the true and underlying plot of his stories.
"If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them." what Hemingway tells us The actual story The Sun Also Rises was published in 1926 and established Hemingway's early reputation. He finally became commercially successful though in 1929 with his novel Farewell to Arms. The Old Man and the Sea won Hemingway literary merit due to its unique narrative style and its finale which ends with subdued triumph when the old man returns home with the remains of his catch but is praised for its obvious size. Most of his works focus on a man displaying immense courage or "grace under pressure"The majority of his characters faced extreme external conflicts such as Santiago in The Old Man and the Sea who fights with a record sized marlin, a bullfighter in Death in the Afternoon, and Robert Jordan in For Whom the Bell Tolls who fought in the Spanish civil war.Hemingway is also known for his masterful use of dailouge and captured peoples speech patterns skillfully. “Hemingway's short fiction is what changed American fiction” -Micheal Reynolds Hemingway's masterful use of dialogue changed the way fictional authors
now write dialogue
His minimalist style created a minimalist fad in writing which influenced famous authors such as Richard Ford, Raymond Carver, and Susan Minot "In the later summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains. In the bed of the river there were pebbles and boulders, dry and white in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels. Troops went by the house and down the road and the dust they raised powdered the leaves of the trees. The trunks of the trees too were dusty and the leaves fell early that year and we saw the troops marching along the road and the dust rising and leaves, stirred by the breeze, falling and the soldiers marching and afterward the road bare and white except for the leaves."
Paragraph 1; A Farewell To Arms Andrew Davis (1926) The Torrents of Spring
(1926) The Sun Also Rises
(1929) A Farewell to Arms
(1937) To Have and Have Not
(1940) For Whom the Bell Tolls
(1950) Across the River and into the Trees
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
(1970) Islands in the Stream
(1986) The Garden of Eden
(1999) True at First Light
(1932) Death in the Afternoon
(1935) Green Hills of Africa Famous Works: Fitzgerald's life born on September 24, 1896 in Saint Paul, Minnesota
Fitzgerald spent the first decade of his childhood primarily in Buffalo NY
His years in Buffalo revealed him to be of unusual intelligence and drive with a keen early interest in literature
Grew up in the roaring 20s and Jazz age
In 1917, Dropped out of college and joined army
Heavy drinker and alcoholic and financial troubles post war years
Hollywood screen writer in the mid 30's
Died December 21st, 1940 His works This Side of Paradise
The Beautiful and Damned
The Great Gatsby
Tender is the Night
The Love of the Last Tycoon
Flappers and Philosophers
Tales of the Jazz Age Excerpt from Great Gatsby This is a valley of ashes--a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens; where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and, finally, with a transcendent effort, of men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air. Occasionally a line of gray cars crawls along an invisible track, gives out a ghastly creak, and comes to rest, and immediately the ash-gray men swarm up with leaden spades and stir up an impenetrable cloud, which screens their obscure operations from your sight."
- F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Ch. 2 Fitzgerald and Modernism Relating to Realism The writing styles' of Fitzgerald and Dickens very closely compare. In Dickens' work of A Tale of Two Cities, he uses a style that consists of exaggeration, unnecessary detail, and caricaturist style of characters that all are marks of his writing. This closely relates to Fitzgerald's style of modernist writing such as, vague terms, breaking tradition, and viewing new positions. These relate because in the realist movement, exaggeration and unnecessary details create different viewing positions of the story as well as vague terms which are characteristics of the modernist movement. For example, the different viewpoint is created when exaggeration becomes so extreme and irrelevant detail is rampant, the version of the story is so altered its an entirely different viewpoint. Both also talk about their real life occurrences and events that happened during their time frame. A Farewell to Arms
The Sun also Rises
For Whom the Bell Tolls
A Clean Well Lighted Place
The Old Man and the Sea I had seen nothing sacred, and the things that were glorious had no glory and the sacrifices were like the stockyards at Chicago if nothing was done with the meat except to bury it. There were many words that you could not stand to hear and finally only the names of places had dignity. Certain numbers were the same way and certain dates and these with the names of the places were all you could say and have them mean anything. Abstract words such as glory, honor, courage, or hallow were obscene beside the concrete names of villages, the numbers of roads, the names of rivers, the numbers of regiments and the dates.