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Transcript of Earthquake Preparations
Tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at the edges due to friction.
When the stress on the edge overcomes the friction
there is an earthquake that releases energy in waves that travel through the earth's crust
which then cause the shaking that we feel. A sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates.
-The earth's crust is made up of several pieces, called PLATES. The plates under the oceans are called oceanic plates and the rest are continental plates.
The plates are moved around by the motion of a deeper part of the earth that lies underneath the crust called the MANTLE.
Earthquakes occur all the time all over the world, both along plate edges and along faults. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/indiana/history.php http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/us_deaths.php http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/where.html
1974-2003 1. Alaska - 12053
2. California - 4895
3. Hawaii - 1533
4. Nevada 778
5. Washington - 424
6. Idaho - 404
7. Wyoming -217
8. Montana - 186
9. Utah - 139
10. Oregon - 73 11. New Mexico - 38
12. Arkansas - 34
13. Arizona - 32
14. Colorado - 24
15. Tennessee - 22
16. Missouri - 21
17. Texas - 20
18. Illinois - 17
19. Oklahoma - 17
20. Maine - 16 http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/states/top_states.php 1. NO ALARM WITH SOUND; earthquakes are signaled by low, loud rumbling.
2. Tell your students: "Earthquake, take cover."
3. Everyone should duck and cover up under the nearest desk or table facing away from windows.
4. Once the ground and building stop shaking, use the fire drill procedure and exit route.
5. Take your class to the school's designated "Safety Zone".
6. Follow "Earthquake Aftermath" 1. FOLLOW FIRE DRILL EVACUATION ROUTE, once shaking has stopped.
2. GO TO "SAFETY ZONE"
3. IF INJURY OCCURS AND THE PERSON CANNOT BE MOVED, alert the Office. Stay with the injured person but a colleague from a nearby room to take your class with theirs to the Safety Zone.
4. BE ALERT TO OBSTACLES. It may not be possible to follow precise Fire Evacuation Route because of damage to the building. Forge an alternate route where necessary.
5. AT THE "SAFETY ZONE"
Take attendance; keep your class with you.
Report injuries to administrators or rescue authorities.
Reassure students that the Safety Zone has been selected as the best place for them in the circumstances.
6. BE ALERT TO AFTER-SHOCKS.
7. KEEP A LIST of students who have to leave your group for ANY reason. This includes students who may be picked up by parents/guardians.
8. AWAIT INSTRUCTIONS; ANTICIPATE EVACUATION To be earthquake "proof"buildings and structures and their foundations need to be built to:
be resistant to sideways loads.
The lighter the building is, the less the loads.
This is important when the weight is up high
(Where possible...the roof should be of light-weight material)
They must be strong enough to take the loads.
They must be tied in to any framing, and reinforced to take load in their weakest direction.
They must not fall apart and must remain in place after the worst shock waves so as to retain strength for the after shocks. -there are floors and walls and partitions, the lighter these are the better. IF -the sideways resistance is to be obtained from walls, these walls must go equally in both directions. http://www.reidsteel.com/information/earthquake_resistant_building.htm Fasten shelves securely to walls, and place heavy objects on lower shelves.
Store breakable items in low, closed cabinets.
Hang items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds and anywhere people sit.
Brace hanging light fixtures.
Repair known defective electrical wiring and gas connections.
Strap your water heater to studs in the wall and bolt it to the floor.
Repair any large existing cracks in the walls or foundations.
Store poisons such as pesticides and herbicides, as well as flammable liquids, on bottoms shelves of latched cabinets.
Identify safe places in each room ( under sturdy furniture, against inside walls, away from glass.
Locate safe places outdoors ( away from buildings, trees, electrical lines, and bridges).
Teach family members how to turn off gas, electricity, and water.
Teach children how to dial 911 in an emergency.
Have disaster supplies on hand
Such as: a flashlight and extra batteries, battery operated radio, first aid kit with manual, emergency food and drinking water, non-electric can opener, cash, sturdy shoes.
Develop an emergency communications plan in case family members are seperated. take cover beneath a sturdy piece of furniture
stay inside dont leave
Move into the open.
Stay away from buildings, street lights, overhead utility wires.
Stay there untill shaking stops. Be prepared for aftershock
Help injured or trapped people
Listen to emergency information
Check on the elderly and disabled
Stay out of damaged bulidings
Use the telephone only for emergency calls
Clean up spilled materials
Open cabinets and closet doors cautiously
Inspect chimneys for damage
Check utilities for damage