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Copy of Online Educational Game


Jeanette Clark

on 27 September 2010

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Transcript of Copy of Online Educational Game

Housing need in the Middle East Low wages Importance of remittances
Macroeconomic instability
Chronic external debt
Government policy
Geographical/environmental conditions
Gender discrimination War / Conflict Urbanization Rural poverty Case Studies Lebanon •From 1975 through the early 1990s civil war destroyed lives, homes and infrastructure in Lebanon – fighting displaced an estimated one million people.

•War damage to property cost an estimated $25 billion.

•The demand for land and housing increased as a result of investment by wealthy Lebanese who returned to the country in the 1990s, pushing prices out of reach of low and some middle income households.

•Because of civil war and economic and social deprivation, many families were forced to leave their homes in search of safe shelter, security and employment.

•Many of the displaced moved to Beirut and other large cities, creating ghettos of poverty on the urban periphery.

•An estimated 200,000 people remain displaced from the 2006 war.
•Almost 100% of the housing stock in Jordan is privately owned or rented and only about 10% of it is located in informal settlements.

•The owner-occupancy rate is 75%.

•Extended families in rural villages often live together – it is not uncommon for 12-15 family members to share a small two room house. Overcrowding endangers health and disallows privacy.

•One of the greatest challenges to housing conditions in Jordan is the frequent influx of refugees – (predominantly from Palestine and Iraq).

•This population influx drove up housing demand. An apartment that would have cost $42,000 before the Iraq War cost over $70,000 by the end of 2006.

•Financial system primarily benefits wealthy households.
•Jordan is considered a regional leader in slum upgrading •20 million people living in substandard housing.

•Poverty housing particularly common in rural areas, where many families live in old mud brick houses with dirt floors, no doors or windows, and inadequate roofs. These conditions provide little protection from weather, intruders, or animals.

•In urban areas, land scarcity and high constructions costs and building standards makes formal-sector housing prohibitively expensive for the poor.

Land prices in Cairo increase at a compound annual rate of 25-40 percent.

•13 million Egyptians live in slums (one million in the City of the Dead).

•Informal settlements are growing quickly in Egypt – 3.2% population growth/year.

•88% of Egyptians live in housing that violates building codes.

•Because of cumbersome bureaucratic registration systems and a six percent tax on land registration, most housing in Egypt is on land that has never been registered Egypt Current economic trends Income inequality http://mit.edu/incrementalhousing/ The idea is to build a starter house (core). This allows for the most basic necessities (structure, water, sanitation, etc.) to be taken care of immediately.

This is helpful on both a macro (neighborhood) and micro (each individual building) level. Once this is taken care of, families can add onto the core house whenever more resources become available.

The house structurally supports any new additions that will be made. The same goes for the bathrooms and kitchens; they were sized to support the home once it was completely built.

“The Pros and Cons of Incremental Housing,” Luke W. Perry, http://haitirewired.wired.com/profiles/blogs/the-pros-and-cons-of
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