Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
Top 10 ophthalmic diseases
Transcript of Top 10 ophthalmic diseases
- wet Cataract The causes
some lens protiens clump together and start to cloud small area of lens Glaucoma 2nd causing BLINDNESS
IOP + Opt.N. damage Predisposing factors:
• poor personal hygiene associated with poverty
• poor trash disposal
• insufficient water supply for washing
• shared sleeping space
• close association with domestic animals
•Swimming pools Classification:
- Astigmatism Risk factors
· Blood sugar levels
· Blood Pressure
· Duration of Diabetes
· Blood lipid levels (cholesterol and triglycerides)
· Pregnancy Corneal ulcer Causes:
-Mostly infections: • Bacterial -common in contact lenses (CL) wearers.
• Viral such as HSV/VZV
• Fungal : in steroid drops overuse
- Direct trauma
- Disorders causing dry eyes
- Chemical burns / caustic solutions.
* In fact, the risk increases 10-fold when using extended-wear soft CL. Eye Allergy Types:
- Seasonal Allergic Conjunctivitis (SAC):The most common type.
- Perennial Allergic Conjunctivitis (PAC): usually caused by allergens that are often present year-round. Stye Predisposing Factors:
• Diabetes Mellitus
• Poor general health and resistance.
• Shared fomites
• Errors of refraction. KERATOCONUS Pathophysiology:
dissolution of Bowman's layer, epithelium and stroma come into contact, cellular changes>>> bulging and scarring of the cornea People affected Pathophysiology Diagnosis Treatment 2013 last research: Early predictor for OAG : preventing the Silent Thief from stealing the human sight.. The time you may get it Risk factors
-prolonged exposure to sunlight Cataract’s Types:
- radiation cataract Prevention may be by:
- Wearing sunglasses and a hat with a brim to block UV sunlight.
- quitting smoking.
- Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam after the age of 60 (at least once every two years).
- eating green leafy vegetables, fruit, and other antioxidants.
- As Researchers believe that good nutrition can help reducing the risk of age-related type. Common symptoms:
- blurry vision
- colors are faded
-halos around lights
- poor night visio
- double vision or multiple images Diagnosis:
- visual acuity test
- dilated eye exam
- tonometry Treatment:
- anti-glare sunglasses
-surgery Prevalence Rates for Cataract :
By race: white > black > Hispanic by number of cases: year 2000: 20,476,000 patients year 2010 : 24,410,000 patients. Predisposing factors Symptoms Conjunctiva
- lid edema
- sensitivity to light
- Follicles (small sacs) in the upper palpebral conjunctiva If left without ttt:
- the follicles develop into large yellow or gray pimples
- Small blood vessels develop inside the cornea. By Repeated infections:
Fibrosis leading to:
1- Arlets line
2- Contraction and turning-in of the eyelids Cornea:
1- corneal follicles in the form of herbert bits & herbert rossettes
2- pannus(superficial vascularization + chronic inflammtory cells)
3- opacity… if bowman memb is destroyed
4- trachomatous ulcers Diagnosis:
1- by history (especially living or traveling in areas with high incidence of trachoma)
2- by examining the eyes: To see follicles or scarring.
(If laboratory facilities are available, a conjunctival sampleis taken to examine it with Giemsa staining
In underdeveloped countries, diagnosis is made based on an examination only. Treatment Prevention S A F E
Environmental improvements. Diagnosis:
- retinoscope Treatment:
1- asymptomatic: ---> left without ttt
2- symptomatic: ---> glasses, contact lenses, refractive surgery
- Myopia: ---> concave lens.
- Hyperopia: ---> convex lenses.
- Presbyopia: ---> bifocal lenses.
- Astigmatism: ---> Cylindrical lenses serve this purpose. Signs and symptoms:
• Pigmentary alterations
• Exudative changes
• Visual acuity drastically decreasing
• Preferential hyperacuity perimetry changes
• Blurred vision
• Central scotomas
• Trouble discerning colors
• Slow recovery of visual function after exposure to bright light
• A loss in contrast sensitivity Causes and risk factors:
• HTN • Cholesterol • Obesity & Fat intake: especially in men
• Family history : raises the risk.
• Race: Caucasians > Africans• Exposure to sunlight especially blue light.
• Fibulin-5 mutation: Diagnosis:
- Amsler grid test
- Fluorescein angiography
- Recently, structured illumination light microscopy. Treatment Symptoms
· Blurred vision
· Visual change
· dark visual areas
· Poor night vision
· washed out Colors
· Visual loss Statistics
· it may be the leading cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide Treatment:
Laser eye surgery (photocoagulation) VitrectomyDrugsSteroids eye injections Symptoms:
• Red eye
• pain (especially when looking at bright lights )
• foreign body sensation
• Pus / thick discharge
• Blurry vision
• lid edema
• corneal white spot Treatment: is
• to remove CL immediately -if they are the cause-
• to apply Cool compresses to the affected eye
• To avoid rubbing/touching the eye
• to wash hands often &dry them with a clean towel -to limit the infection spread-
• to control pain with oral (acetaminophen/ ibuprofen) or some mydriatic eye drops.
• to avoid patching the eye (as that creates a warm environment allowing bacteria to grow)
• Antibiotic eye drops (to prevent secondary bacterial infection)
• Daily Follow-up -as it’s not a simple condition-
• Hospitalization in non responding cases
• If it’s very severe, corneal transplantation may be required Prevention:
• by eye protection.
• Artificial tear drops to keep eyes lubricated.
• in case of CL:
* the patient should be very careful with cleaning them regularly by the specific disinfecting solution (not the tap water)
*wear them the right way
*Remove them every evening & Never sleep with them
*Remove them whenever the eyes are irritated Risk Factors:
- The individual sensitivity to the allergens.
- People with nasal allergies may also suffer from eye allergies. Triggers:
• Dust • Pet dander
• Grass &weeds • Plant pollen
• Mold Symptoms:
• lacrimation • Swelling
• Burning sensation • Blurry vision Diagnosis:
- a slit lamp examination may reveal chemosis, lid edema and dilated blood vessels.
-In severe cases we may check for Eosinophils by scraping the conjunctiva. Treatment:
1. washing the individual pillowcases, changing the air conditioning filter from time to time, taking a shower before bed to remove the antigens caught in hair &clothes and finally by avoiding rubbing eyes to prevent triggering the allergy
2. Cold Compresses appliance to closed eyes for 5 to 10 minutes, a few times per day.
3. OTC(over-the-counter) (Antihistaminic+ vasoconstrictor) Drops 4 times per day for about a week. Statistics:
It affects a reported 20% of the population worldwide and may be increasing in line with other atopic diseases like asthma as a result of environmental factors. 4% of them are children. Symptoms:
• A lump at the lash root
• Localized swelling of the eyelid.
• Pain (dull on the start, throbbing on pus formation).
• Burning sensation
• Droopiness of the eyelid
• Scratchy sensation on the eyeball.
• Blurred vision.
• Mucous discharge in the eye. Signs:
Localized red swelling:
1.related to a lash
2.close to the lid margin
3.pointing on the skin Treatment:
• Hot fomentations.
• Local antibiotics: Eye drops & eye ointments.
• Systemic antibiotics: Especially in multiple styes.
• If a pointed stye occurred: Evacuate the pus through:
a.Epilation of the related hair follicle.
b.Horizontal incision of the formed abscess.
• In Recurrent cases: Test for possible predisposing factor (D.M.) Prevention:
- proper hygiene &hand washing. After awakening
- application of a warm washcloth to the eyelids for five to ten minutes
- avoid sharing cosmetic eye tools with others.
- Remove makeup every night before sleep and discard old or contaminated eye makeup. Types:
1-Puberty-Onset: the commonest form, begins in early adolescence at about age 14 to16 years. (usually bilateral )
2-Late-Onset: Begins in the late twenties or early thirties (bilateral and less severe)
3-Keratoconus Fruste: can occur at anytime throughout life. (Unilateral / bilateral ) Associated conditions:
1- Down syndrome
3-joint hypermobility How to diagnose?
1- measure visual acuity
2- measure corneal curvature by keratometer
3- detection for irregular astigmatism
4- slit lamp examination will show a ring of yellow-brown to olive-green pigmentation known as Fleischer ring
Realted occular diseases:
2-Pellucid marginal degeneration . It causes irregular astigmatism
3-Posterior keratoconus Treatment:
Early cases: contact lenses and glasses may be useful.
Late cases: surgical intervension must be done.
1- corneal transplant.
3-corneal ring segment insert. Statistics:
the most common dystrophy of the cornea affecting 54.5 out of 100.000 individuals worldwide .