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Transcript of Native Americans
By Max, Erika, Ville, Laura and Julia
In the perspective of a timeline:
Pre-DP History Mattlidens Gymnasium
Humans first evolved in Africa
40 - 50 TYA
Migration out into the rest of the world reaching central and eastern Asia
Start of PALEO-INDIAN PERIOD
Humans reach America
Bering Land Bridge Theory
Undersea ridge between Siberia and Alaska
Atlantic coast to the mountain ranges of Alaska and British Columbia, and from the southern shores of the Great Lakes to the north polar regions.
Around 12 TYA glaciers began to melt and an "ice- free" corridor appeared
Northeast Asian hunter-gatherers of the Siberian steppes pursued their prey across the land bridge
isolated due to melting ice submerging the bridge 10 TYA
30 ---> 10 TYA
Start of FORMATIVE PERIOD
Start of ARCHAIC PERIOD
Arrival of Christopher Columbus
The Indian Removal Act
Wounded Knee Massacre
U.S Government forces Native Americans on to reservations
SPREAD OF DISEASES
End of Ice Age to 4000-5000 YA
Paleo-Indians begin to spread out
changing nourishment patterns
advanced trade networks
By 15 TYA central plains of America inhabited
following 5000 years humans enter South America.
By 8 TYA provinces of Canada.
7 TYA Arctic Circle eventually reaching Greenland (Eskimos).
First American farmers began to appear (5000 BC - 2500 BC)
3000 BC settled agriculturalists.
Starts around 4,000 to 5,000 years ago
egalitarian social systems to complicated socio-political systems
nomadic to sedentary settlement
experimenting with plants
pottery and long distance trade.
The first proper civilizations began around 3 TYA - Gulf of Mexico
Olmec people and three centuries later the Chavin culture of Peru.
Set pattern which lasted for more than 2000 year (Maya, Aztecs and the Incas)
300 different Native American nations had developed
They all go around as naked as their mothers bore them; and also the women."
"they could easily be commanded and made to work, to sow and to do whatever might be needed, to build towns and be taught to wear clothes and adopt our ways."
"they are the best people in the world and above all the gentlest,"
Immigrants - horses, guns, blankets, cloth and metal tools.
Natives - plants as medicines
disregarded all respect for lands and resources - greed and arrogance
tricked, tormented, raped, enslaved and massacred
brutal attacks and invasion - “as the stars in heaven.”
smallpox, measles, pneumonia, influenza, and malaria
indications prior to European settlement
triggered the largest population decline in all recorded history.
50% of Native American population had died of disease within twenty years and entire villages were wiped out.
APACHE CHEROKEE SIOUX
-Told as stories or series of narratives
-Heavy with symbolism
-Contains wisdom or lessons
-Nature & Spirits, heavily associated with religion
-Spirits made the world
-Mankind last to enter creation
-"Protectors of nature"
MUSIC AND ART
-Strong ties to nature
-Spirits in everything
-The spirits all have their own characteristics; virtues, vices and personalities.
-Dreams are visions sent from spirits
-People with particularly vivid, auspicious dreams may become mystics or shamans
-State of trans to more easily receive visions
-Settlers brought their religion with them
-Christianity became forced
-Merging of christianity and native religions
-David Pendleton Oakerhater (Cheyenne)
-Outlawing of spiritualism and ancient traditions
-Native american tradition went "underground"
-Rules forbidding native religions were later abolished
-Native american populace largely christian today, but traditional religions are still practised
"harmony between the mind, body and spirit"
Medicine Man/ Woman or Healer
Cherokee: written "syllabary"
Sioux: Medicine wheel
Apache: rituals before and after hunting
-Strong Asian heritage
-Horses & Buffalo
-Controlled the northern Great Plain
-Territories taken from them
-Tribal wars and reservations
-Uniting against the settlers
-Wounded Knee Massacre
Western Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, Kiowa
New Mexico, Arizona, Mexico
Cherokee and pre-Cherokee populated the North Carolina Mountains form the end of the last ice age
1540: Hernando DeSoto's expedition
17th century: involved in trade
American Revolution: British side
1838: "Trail of Tears"