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sameer mohammed

on 3 May 2014

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Transcript of Bacteria

What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are microorganisms that are every where in our daily lives. There are some that are good called gram positive and some that are obviously bad called gram negative. Bacteria are very fascinating because some are beneficial to us as they prevent many symptoms but some can be very deadly that they might even cost our lives. In my presentation, you will see the bright and dark side of these microoganisms and know how helpful and deadly they can be.
What's E.Coli?
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium found in the intestines of warm blooded organisms. The thing about this bacteria is that it isn't always harmful to you. E. coli lives in your intestines to break down food for digestion. It also prevents harmful bacteria from settling in the intestine. But sometimes the bacteria goes from your intestines to your blood which leads to illness. Luckily, there are treatments and medicine for the bacteria in developed countries but places such as Africa don't have medicine. E. coli can become really nasty if it isn't treated quickly.
Most of us have heard of tuberculosis(TB) and know how dangerous it is. Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by a bacterium called "Mycobacterium Tuberculosis". This disease is a type of bacteria which many people in the world have. Tuberculosis mainly affects the lungs but also the organs in the central nervous system, lymphatic system, and circulatory system. In the next slide, I will talk in depth on how it affects us.
What are Probiotics
Probiotics are microorganisms that are beneficial to the body in some way. Probiotics are the good bacteria and can be found in many foods such as yogurt. They play very important roles in our body such as regulating proper intestinal function and digestion. This happens by balancing intestinal microflora which is a complex microorganisms that live within the intestines and the biggest reservoir in human flora.
Health Benefits
There are many health benefits of probiotics and certain strains of probiotics have shown positive results in diarrhea and gastroenteritis(inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Probiotics prevent many gastrointestinal disorders and their treatments. A type of gastrointestinal disorder can be infectious diarrhea.
Lactobacillus are rod shaped bacterium that are safe and effective for treatment to children with infectious diarrhea.
Also, it helps lower blood pressure. A type of bacteria known as Lactobacillus reuteri reduces "bad" cholesterol. Research shows that probiotic bacteria prevent the body from bacterial infection. Lactobacillus salivarius is atype of probiotic that provides significant protection from Listeria infection.
Welcome to the World of Bacteria!
How it Affects us?
Tuberculosis mainly affects the lungs but also organs in the lymphatic system, central nervous system, and the circulatory system.
When a person becomes infected with tuberculosis, the bacteria in the lungs multiply causing the person to have pneumonia. Pneumonia is caused by a bacterial infection such as this one and causes the person to have lung inflammation which is chest pain and persistent coughing that brings up blood.

Tuberculosis and the Immune System
The immune system within us prevents the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms such as tuberculosis.
When TB takes over our body, the immune system forms scar tissue or fibrosis (the thickening or scarring of a connective tissue which most often results in injury) around the bacterium to fight against the infection from spreading to other parts of the body.

But if the infection breaks through the fibrosis then it will continue its active state of pneumonia and damage the kidneys, bones, and meninges that line the spinal cord and brain.
Tuberculosis is either latent or active:

Latent TB is when the bacteria are inactive but still inside your body. The person does not have any symptoms and is not contagious.
Active TB is completely the opposite of latent TB. So the bacteria are active and make the person ill and contagious.
The Symptoms of Tuberculosis
Night sweating
Loss of appetite
unexplained weight loss
Shortness of breath
There are also symptoms specifically to the lungs such as:
painful breathing
Coughing that lasts for 3 or more weeks
Coughing up blood
Lung inflammation
Pain when you cough
How can it be Treated?
The treatment for tuberculosis really depends on whether it is latent or active.
If it is inactive, then you receive a prescription for a drug called isoniazid (INH) for twelve months. What this drug does is kill the active(growing) TB bacteria. The reason you have to use this drug for 12 months is because sometimes the bacteria existing rests(non-growing) for long periods so it must be used for a pretty long time.

When TB is extensive, the patient must use a combination of drugs including rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. these three drugs are quite strong and used to prevent TB that has covered a good quantity of your body. There have been cases where a patient has a drug resistant strain of TB and they have to have the three drugs and additional ones as well. These patients have to go through drug therapy much longer and sometimes tuberculosis gets so bad that the patient must have surgery to remove damaged lung tissue.
How is it Bad?
Well, E. coli is bad for us because since it is in our intestines, there is a chance where it can enter our blood and this leads to illness.
E. coli can cause diarrhea(with blood), belly cramps, sometimes vomiting, fatigue, and nausea. If a healthy adult gets the bad version of E. coli, the person can recover within 5-7 days. But, young children and seniors with weak immune systems can potentially get HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome) which is a type of kidney failure. Eventually, the bad E. coli will start to spread to others.
How do we get Infected?
One of the ways we can get infected is ingesting contaminated water. The tap water we drink is clean but sometimes the municipal water supplies gets contaminated with E.coli when it outbreaks.
Ingesting contaminated food. For example, ground beef, unpasteurized milk, or fresh vegetables can spread E.coli. if a servant at a restaurant does not wash his/her hands and touches the food, then the bacteria will spread to customers and staff members.
You can also get E.coli if you make contact with animals not only in the farms, but also the petting zoos and country fairs.

How it can be Treated
There is actually no treatment for E.coli as it needs to run its course. A doctor would advise the patient to take rest and drink lots of water to prevent dehydration.
If the patient is on a OTC(over the counter) medication to stop diarrhea, then the person should not take those anymore as it slows down the digestive system.
E.coli In our System
E.coli can enter inside our body when we ingest contaminated food such as beef. There is E.coli inside the intestine of a healthy cattle but it can become contaminated when being sluaghtered. So when we eat it, the bacteria will go through our digestive system and attach to the cells in the large intestine. Soon, the intestine becomes infected and the bacteria starts to multiply and produce toxins. This leads to vomitting and diarrhea most of the time. It's kind of like a city getting invaded by troops who are unwelcome but come in and take over everything. This city eventually becomes corrupted kind of like how the cells in the intestine are taken over by the bacterium E.coli.
E.coli cells are really small and since they are acid tolerant, they can pass through the stomach spreading the infection even further. Most children and seniors get HUS because their immue systems are weak.
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Reproducing
Lactobacillus Acidophilus
Lactobacillus acidophilus, or L. acidophilus, is a type of probiotic and is gram positive meaning that it is a good bacteria and is beneficial to us. This bacteria helps us in many ways like preventing diarrhea and reducing the overgrowth of pathogens in our digestive tracts by living in our small intestine. This bacteria also enhances our immune system which then protects us from infections in future. This a very helpful bacteria in our body.
Bacteria Diagram
Bacteria is a unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and has many other components contributing to the cell.

- The ribosomes are the organelles that give the cytoplasm a granular appearance in electron micrographs. These ribosomes have a function in translating the genetic message in messenger RNA into the production of proteins.

- They are small DNA fragments in the cytoplasm that contain code. The code makes the cell antibiotic resistance meaning that the bacteria cannot be destroyed by medicine. Plasmids are transferred from one bacteria to another.

- It's a layer of polysaccharide(carbohydrate with sugar particles bonded) and sometimes proteins. This layer protects the cell and is assosciated with other pathogenic bacteria because it blocks phagocytosis by white blood cells.
- It is the watery substance in a cell in which the organelles are suspended such as plasmids, nucleoids, and storage granules.

Bacterial Flagellum
- Flagella(sing. flagellum) are organelles that propel substances throught their environment. Bacteria might have one or more flagella in different positions.

- They are hollow hair-like projections that produce protein and allow bacteria to attach to other cells.

- it is an irregural shaped organelle that contains some or most of the genetic material. The name sort of sounds like "nucleus" and it is sort of the same as a nucleus in a eukaryotic cell (normal cell) but the difference is that it is not surrounded by a nucleus membrane.

Plasma Memebrane
- It is like any other membrane in a cell. It is a bilayer of lipids(fats) and many proteins are moving upon or within the membrane. It also transports ions, nutrients, and waste across the membrane.
Eukaryotic cells
- normal cells with organelles such as the nucleus in the cytoplasm within membranes.
Prokaryotic cells
- they are a group of organisms without a membrane surrounding the nucleus.
Gastroenteritis- inflammation of the stomach and intestine because of bacteria.
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
- a disease that causes many things but is known for causing kidney failure. This disease has been dominantly and exclusively to children as they have weak immune systems.
- double layer of thick molecules.
Human flora
- the human microbiome(microorganisms in a particular envrionment) is the group of microorganisms that are in deep layers of skin.
You must be thinking that bacteria are really nasty and deadly but some are also helpful to us. Yes, many people die each day because of bacteria and there are far more types of bacterial infections out there that are dangerous. E.coli are common bacteria that many have heard. They are good but can become bad if we eat the wrong food. Tuberculosis(disease) is caused by a bacterium called

. Many of you have heard of it as it is one of the most contagious and infectious bacteria.
Not all bacteria are bad because probiotics are the good bacteria that are beneficial to us. Yogurt has lots of probiotics that help us in our daily lives like making sure that we don't get diarrhea and get stronger immune systems.
Wow, it's quite amazing what bacteria are capable of, don't you think?
This bacterium can be airborne so if you are around someone with TB, then there is a good chance that you will get it as well. When you do, the bacterium enters and if you have a strong immune system, you may not notice the disease right away because your immune is fighting off the bacteria. when the bacteria can't take over, it starts to reproduce more of its kind and sooner or later, your immune system won't stand a chance against the bacteria. As this battle continues, bacteria reproduces its kind to make a large group.When the immune system cannot take anymore, the bacteria invades and since there are so many bacteria cells, it is like an explosion of disease in the body. The macrophage are phagocytic cells and if they can't kill the bacteria, then the bacteria will replicate by cell division until the macrophage bursts. The bacteria are then taken over by the macrophage and soon the bacteria is being eaten by macrophage in the bloodstreams. The bacteria spreads into the bloodstream but the host and bacteria are not harmed. The bacteria slow down reproduction and kill the non-activated macrophages. This how it reproduces and spreads in the human body.
By Sameer
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