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Transcript of Civil War
America’s bloodiest clash, the sectional conflct of the Civil War (1861-65) pitted the Union against the Confederate States of America and resulted in the death of more than 620,000, with millions more injured.
States Rights, Slavery, Abolitionism, Secession, and Emancipation
Define in your own
3 Main Characteristics
Opposite of its Meaning
The Underground Railroad and the Fugitive Slave Act
Before 1850, if runaway slaves were caught, they were typically killed, and sometimes tortured in a public display to scare other slaves. Punishment in the North for white people and free blacks who assisted in escapes was originally not as harsh -- typically a fine for the loss of "property" and a short jail sentence that might not be enforced. But in 1850, penalties became much steeper and included more jail time. Whites who armed slaves, which was often necessary along the dangerous route, could be executed. In the South, anyone -- white or black -- who assisted a fugitive could face death.
**The Underground Railroad was not under the ground and it was not a railroad!!**
Best-selling novel of the 19th century and the second best-selling book of that century, following the Bible.
Uncle Tom's Cabin contributed to the outbreak of war by personalizing the political and economic arguments about slavery
"Moral battle cry for freedom"
"Helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Passed by the U.S. Congress on May 30, 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders.
Infuriated many in the North who considered the Missouri Compromise to be a long-standing binding agreement. In the pro-slavery South it was strongly supported.
Pro-slavery and Anti-slavery settlers held different elections to decide the fate of the state but accused one another of fraud.
Violence soon erupted, with the anti-slavery forces led by John Brown. The territory earned the nickname "Bleeding Kansas" as the death toll rose.
Due to fraudulent elections, Kansas was denied statehood
On January 29, 1861, just before the start of the Civil War, Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
In Dred Scott v. Sandford (argued 1856 -- decided 1857), the Supreme Court ruled that Americans of African descent, whether free or slave, were not American citizens and could not sue in federal court. The Court also ruled that Congress lacked power to ban slavery in the U.S. territories. Finally, the Court declared that the rights of slaveowners were constitutionally protected by the Fifth Amendment because slaves were categorized as property.
No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law;
nor shall private property be taken
for public use, without just compensation
The Fifth Amendment
Manufacturing Society vs.
Tariff Issues Prior to the Civil War
High tariffs help the industrial North by making their prices more competitive against cheap imports; had most of the nation’s manufacturing. Northern response – Northerners liked tariffs because it caused Americans to buy more American-made products by increasing the cost of European imported manufactured goods.
The South, which had little industry and imported most non-agricultural goods, saw the high tariff as a burden imposed by the more industrialized and populated north. Sold most of their cotton to foreign buyer’s on credit. Southern response – Southerners opposed tariffs because the South's main trade partners were European nations. High tariffs on raw materials forced the South to sell their materials for low prices, while tariffs on manufactured goods caused them to pay a higher price for the products they purchased from their European trade partners.
The West backed government spending on internal improvements such as new roads and canals, and they were financed by tariffs.
Sectionalism – Loyalty to local interests instead of national concerns. In the United States, the differences between northern, southern, and western areas increased throughout the early 1800s. Different cultures and business practices existed in the three sections of the country and these concerns often conflicted. While farming was central to the livelihoods in all areas, northerners were more involved in manufacturing and commerce; capital was invested in factories and transportation. Southerners were more dependent on cash-crop agriculture, growing tobacco, sugar, or cotton; capital was invested in slaves and in overseas markets. Westerners depended on cheap land for expansion and good transportation networks to remain in touch with eastern business.
How did Dred Scott vs Sanford (1857) affect the lives of enslaved people?
A) It restricted slavery to states alone and not territories.
B) It allowed enslaved people to sue for their freedom in state courts.
C) It confirmed enslaved people were property and cannot bring a case to a federal court.
D) It determined enslaved people could travel across state lines when seeking freedom.
Three Senatorial Giants
John C. Calhoun – South Carolina Senator who favored states’ rights and led opposition in South Carolina to the protective Tariff of 1828.
Henry Clay – Senator from Kentucky and known as the “Great Compromiser” for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation. He sponsored the Missouri Compromise in 1820, admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
Daniel Webster – Senator from Massachusetts known as “The Great Orator”; worked to create compromises with the southern states that would delay the start of the Civil War.
The Election of 1860 & Secession
By 1860, the divisions in the country had reached a breaking point
Southerners were outraged over a plot by abolitionist John Brown to start a slave rebellion
Northern Republicans were equally angered by the recent Supreme Court decision in the case of Dred Scott v. Sanford
The presidential Election of 1860 brought dramatic consequences. The Democratic Party split into three groups along regional lines, each vying for control of the party and each holding different ideas about how to deal with slavery in the West. These three camps lined up against Abraham Lincoln, the nominee of the Republican Party, who advocated that the West be free of slavery entirely
Because Lincoln’s opponents were so deeply divided, he won with less than forty percent of the popular vote (but with fifty-nine percent of the Electoral College) and without taking a single slave state.
South Carolina responded to Lincoln’s election first, seceding from the Union on December 20, 1860.
Within three months of Lincoln's election, seven states had seceded from the Union.
When Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, he gave a speech encouraging the South to return and promising that slavery would be protected where it already existed, but he refused to budge on his support of free soil ideas
Battle of Fort Sumter
The Battle of Fort Sumter (April 12–14, 1861) was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U.S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor
On April 12, 1861, General P.G.T. Beauregard, in command of the Confederate forces around Charleston Harbor, opened fire on the Union garrison holding Fort Sumter. At 2:30pm on April 13 Major Robert Anderson, garrison commander, surrendered the fort and was evacuated the next day.
Leaders During the Civil War
Abraham Lincoln - President
Hannibal Hamlin (1861–1865) - VP
Andrew Johnson (1865) - VP
Ulysses S. Grant - Chief General
**William Carney: Congressional Medal of Honor recipient, served with the 54th Massachusetts Regiment (Union) during the Civil War, he was the first black soldier to receive the award**
(AKA - The Unites States of AmericaThe North, Merica')
Leaders During the Civil War
AKA - The Confederate States of America, The South, Dixieland
Jefferson Davis - President
Alexander Stephens - VP
Robert E. Lee - Chief General
Joseph Johnston - Sr. Confederate Commander
The Other Famous General Lee
Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.
Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.
Both wives lost a child while living in the White House.
Both Presidents were shot on a Friday.
Both Presidents were shot in the head.
Lincoln's secretary was named Kennedy.
Kennedy's Secretary was named Lincoln.
Something to think about
Both were assassinated by Southerners.
Both were succeeded by Southerners named Johnson.
Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born in 1808.
Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, was born in 1908.
John Wilkes Booth, who assassinated Lincoln, was born in 1839.
Lee Harvey Oswald, who assassinated Kennedy, was born in 1939.
Both assassins were known by their three names.
Both names are composed of fifteen letters.
Lincoln was shot at the theater named "Ford."
Kennedy was shot in a car called "Lincoln" made by "Ford."
Booth and Oswald were assassinated before their trials.
A week before Lincoln was shot, he was in Monroe, Maryland.
A week before Kennedy was shot, he was with Marilyn Monroe
Lincoln was shot in a theater and the assassin ran to a warehouse
Kennedy was shot from a warehouse and the assassin ran to a theater...
The American Civil War
President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."
The Significance of The Battle of Gettysburg
**The Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg is considered the turning point of the Civil War because it turned back the Confederate invasion of the North.**
***Lincoln's death had a huge impact on the nation as the loss of his leadership made overcoming the challenges the nation faced more difficult.***
Causes of the Civil War so far...