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Civil War Project_History_period 6/7_Noa Dar and Gal Dayan

Stephan Douglas, the Lincoln/Douglas Debate(s), John Brown Harper's Ferry, Jefferson Davis, and Fort Sumter.
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Noa Dar

on 7 June 2011

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Transcript of Civil War Project_History_period 6/7_Noa Dar and Gal Dayan

CIVIL WAR PROJECT By Noa Dar and Gal Dayan Who was Stephen A. Douglas? Stephen Arnold Douglas was nicknamed “The Little Giant” for his short figure and large head. He was born on April 23rd 1813, in Vermont. Douglas was a Democrat. At the Age of twenty, he became a lawyer and moved to Illinois. In 1834, he became the anttorney general of illinois. In 1835 he became a member of the legislature, and in 1840, secretary of state. In 1841, he became a judge of the supreme court and a member of the House of Representatives in 1847. In 1854, Douglas introduced the Kansaas-Nebraska bill to the senate, which meant states could enter with or without slavery. As a result of this, groups of “pro-slaves” and “anti-slaves” emerged.
Abraham Lincoln challenged douglas for his seat in senate. He disagreed with Douglas’s proposal that people living in the Louisiana Purchase should be allowed to own slaves. Lincoln believe that terriotries should be kept for “poor people to go to and better their condition” They had 7 debates each 3 hours long. The Lincoln/Douglas debates During 1858, a campaign was held for a US Senate seat from Illinois.
Douglas was a democrat, as the incumbent Senator, having been elected in 1847. he was a proponent of popular sovereignty.
Lincoln was a republican-whig. He was unknown at beginning of debates. Lincoln stated that the US could not survive as half-slave and half-free states. The Lincoln-Douglas debates drew the attention of the entire nation. Lincoln loses in senate 1858 but wins over douglas for US presidency in 1860. Stephan A. Douglas Abraham Lincoln critical issues dividing the nation--slavery versus free labor, popular sovereignty, and the legal and political status of black Americans --were brought into sharp focus in a series of dramatic debates during the 1858 election campaign for U.S. senator from Illinois. Lincoln accepted the Republican nomination with the famous words: "'A house divided against itself cannot stand.' I believe this Government cannot endure permanently half-slave and half-free." They had debates of up to 15000 people
Douglas's strategy in the debates was to picture Lincoln as a fanatical "Black Republican" whose goal was to incite civil war, emancipate the slaves, and make blacks the social and political equals of whites.
Lincoln denied that he was a radical. He said that he supported the Fugitive Slave Law and opposed any interference with slavery in the states where it already existed. Douglas argued that slavery was a dying institution that had reached its natural limits and could not thrive where climate and soil were inhospitable. He asserted that the problem of slavery could best be resolved if it were treated as essentially a local problem.
Lincoln regarded slavery as a dynamic, expansionistic institution, hungry for new territory. He argued that if Northerners allowed slavery to spread unchecked, slaveowners would make slavery a national institution and would reduce all laborers, white as well as black, to a state of virtual slavery. The biggest difference between the two candidates involved the issue of black Americans' legal rights. Douglas was unable to conceive of blacks as anything but inferior to whites, and he was unalterably opposed to Negro citizenship. "I want citizenship for whites only," he declared. Lincoln said that he, too, was opposed to "bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races." But he insisted that black Americans were equal to Douglas and "every living man" in their right to life, liberty, and the persuit of happiness. Douglas wanted to settle the slavery question in popular sovereignity.
Lincoln did not want to interfere with states that already allowed slavery, he wanted to prevent states where it had not exhisted, to remain that way. JOHN BROWN Harpers Ferry In 1859 john brown carried his antislavery campaignfrom kansas to the east.he led a group of his followers including 5 African Americans to the town of Harpers Ferry,Virginia. There brown planned to raid a federal arsenal or gun warehouse. He thought that african american salves would follow him at the arsenal. He would then give them weapons and lead them in a revolt. Brown took control on the arsenal very quickly. No slave uprisin took place instead, troops under command of Robert E. Lee killed ten raiders (people on browns side) and captured brown. Most people in north and south of US thought he was insane because there werent many enslaved African Americans in Harpers Ferry. After seizing the arsenal he did nothing to encourage slave revolt. At his trial he sat calm, as they found him guilty of murder and treason (actions against one’s country). Before hearing his sentence he gave a moving defence of his actions. He was sentenced to death. He became a hero to some northerns because he conducted himself with such dignity at his trial. Some called him a martyr because he gave his life for his beliefs. Southerners didn’t like how northerns reacted to Brown’s actions- somke were convinced that the north wanted to destroy slaveryand south along with it. The nation was divided. Jefferson Davis was born in Kentucky in 1808. His family seems to have been of modest circumstances and soon moved to newly opened southern frontier in Mississippi. He was intelligent and had a great imagination. Davis was educated at a number of institutions like Transylvania University before entering West Point from which he graduated. He then served in the army in Wisconsin and Illinois and served in the black hawk war in 1832. He resigned from the army in 1835 married daughter of Colonel Zachary Taylor (who was the commandant of Davis's post at the time, and returned to Mississippi as a planter). His wife died three months later from malaria. In 1845 married a woman from a socially prominent family. He was elected to Congress as a democrat.when the mexican war broke out he resigned his seat in order to command Mississippi regiment. His bravery at the battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista won him acclaim. Then he was elected to the US Senate- where he became a leading spokeman for souther rights.
After losing as a candidate for governor he came back to be a planter but in 1853 he became secartery of war in the cabinet of President Franklin Pierce. He then returned to the Senate and became a leader of southern democratic defense of slavery and its constitutional right to protection in the territories. More controversially, he advocated the revival of th e slave trade. Although he did not advocate immediate secession following Lincoln's election, Davis accepted his state's decision to leave the Union. He hoped for a high military position, and when news arrived at Brierfield of his selection as provisional President, his wife described him as "so grieved that I feared some evil had befallen our family." Davis, nevertheless, accepted the position, and on February 18, 1861 was inaugurated President. Fort Sumter On April 10, 1861, Brig. Gen. Beauregard, in command of the provisional Confederate forces at Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Garrison commander Anderson refused. On April 12, Confederate batteries opened fire on the fort, which was unable to reply effectively. At 2:30 pm, April 13, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, evacuating the garrison on the following day. The bombardment of Fort Sumter was the opening engagement of the American Civil War. Although there were no casualties during the bombardment, one Union artillerist was killed and three wounded (one mortally) when a cannon exploded prematurely while firing a salute during the evacuation on April 14. Any Questions? Thank you! 1808- Jefferson Davis born in Kentucky 1813- Stephen Douglas was born 1833- Douglas became a lawyer and moved to Illinois 1835- Davis resigns from war and marries daughter of Colonel Zachary Taylor 1847- Douglas became a member of the House of Representatives 1854- Douglas introduced the Kansas- Nebraska bill to Senate 1858- campaign for US Senate seat from Illinois 1858- Lincoln loses to Douglas in senate 1859- John Brown carried his antislavery campaign from Kansas to the east 1860- Lincoln wins over Douglas for presidency 1861- April 12-14 Confederate forces go into Charleston, SC The Civil War to the Last Frontier 1850-1880’s by William Loren Katz
In election of 1860 there were 700,000 German Americans in the US. Lincoln’s record attracted immigrants and their votes could mean victory or defeat for Republicans in: Missouri, Iowa, Illinois and more. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=336
http://www.illinoiscivilwar.org/debates.html
http://www.tulane.edu/~latner/Davis.html
http://www.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/sc001.htm

2 books about the civil that we left at the library, we'll find the name out and tell you tomorrow, Finn! Sorry! :(
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