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Race discrimination laws in America

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Elisabetta Toso

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of Race discrimination laws in America


Great Britain
Gulf of Guinea
The Caribbean Islands
Raw materials
(sugar, cotton, tobacco)
Manifactures Goods
(steel, pearls, gun powder, and weapons)
Enslaved Africans
South America
North America
"The Europeans, having extirpated the Americans, were obliged to make slaves of the Africans, for clearing such vast tracts of land.Sugar would be too dear if the plants which produce it were cultivated by any other than slaves." Montesquieu (1689-1755)
Between XVI and XIX century almost 11 millions of slaves were deported from Africa to America:
-1.5 millions died during the transfer
-9.5 milions arrived in America
Slaves worked mainly in sugar cane and tobacco plantations, which required a high effort of arms.
Climatic conditions and the monstrous pace of work prevented that the population self-sustained.
Deaths exceeded births and this made the transatlantic trade flourishing.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Freedom Rides
In 1960, a Supreme Court decision ruled that segregation was illegal in bus stations that were open to interstate travel;
So Freedom Rides started: black and white people, called Freedom Riders, started to travel around the South in buses to test if the new law worked;
In some places , such Alabama, people still attacked this buses because they didn’t want to change.
President Kennedy supported the Freedom Riders saying that every seat on interstate buses should be ‘’without reference to race, color or creed’’.
Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States of America;
In 1961, during his inaugural speech, he promised to end racial discrimination;
During Kennedy’s time in office, he appointed black people to many federal position. No other president had ever done that in the past.

School segregation
In many places Whites and Blacks were not allowed to go to the same school;
President John F. Kennedy helped supporting the people who wanted desegregation, like James Meredith and the black students at the University of Alabama;
In June 1963, Alabama’s governor tried to block two black students from entering the University by standing in front of the registration building door. Kennedy used the army to let the two Blacks enroll the school.
The Civil Right Act of 1964
In 1963, President Kennedy told Congress that the new civil rights laws he proposed involve every American’s right to vote, to go to school, to get a job and to be served in a public place without discrimination;
Sadly, President Kennedy didn’t see this Act become law. He was assassinated on the 22th November 1963 in Texas.

States power vs Federal power debate since 1787
South less federal power
Slavery to be left up to the States
North and West more federal power
National Bank
Protective tariffs
Slavery: poster child for states rights
States with slavery preferred more states rights
Free states preferred more central power
December 20,1860--South Carolina secedes
February 1861--Confederate States of America formed
included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas
Government headed by moderates
Confederate constitution resembles U.S.
Aim to restore pre-Republican Party Union
Southerners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy
Advantages of the North (UNION)

population - 22 million
90% of ind. goods, esp. munitions
efficient railroad system
controlled the navy, which could be used to blockade s. ports and shut down the s. eco.
but would have to fight an offensive war (long supply lines, unfamiliar territory...)
Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson fall to Grant (Feb 6-16)
Shiloh (April 6/7)
13K Union Casual.
10K Confed. Casual.
New Orleans Seized
April 25

Ironclad Merimac sinks two Union ships (March 8/9)
McClellan’s Peninsular Campaign (May 31/ June 1)
Second Battle of Bull Run (August 29/30)
Antietam (Sept. 17)
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation (Sept. 22)
McClellan Replaced by Burnside (Nov. 7)
Mid-term Elections in Union (Nov.)
Fredericksburg (Dec. 13)
First Year Fort Sumpter Attacked (April 12)
Lincoln Calls for 75,000 volunteers (April 15)
Lincoln proclaims blockade of southern ports (April 19)
First Battle of Bull Run – Union loses (July 21)
Union humbled / Confederates overconfident
McDowell fired / Replaced by McClellan
Trent Affair (Nov) Confederate Diplomats seized from British ship “Trent”
Union Armies train endlessly
Advantages f the South (CONFEDERATE)

Confederates had excellent generals too -Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jackson
Defending is always easier than attacking
Farmers fight better than factory workers
Profitable eco. based on cotton exports
Racism and the Civil War (North)
Racism common both before and after Civil War
Lincoln forbids Secretary of War Simon Cameron from advocating emancipation and employment of former slaves in war effort (Dec 1861)
Strict Blacks Codes existed in IL, IN, OR, OH
No entry into the state
No ownership of property
Blacks only allowed to vote in 5 Northern (N-England) states
Blacks were not treated equally in the military
Northern states (e.g. IL) refused black suffrage until 15th amend. (1870)
Blacks paid less and segregated, especially in the military
Emancipation Proclamation signed (January 1)
Battle of Chancellorsville begins near Fredericksburg, Virginia (May 1)
Battle of Champion Hill, Mississippi (May 16)
Battle of Brandy Station, Virginia (June 9)
Battle of Gettysburg Pennsylvania begins (July 1)
Confederates surrender Vicksburg, Mississippi (July 4)
Assault on battery Wagen (July 18)
Battle of Chickamuga, Georgia (September 19)
President Lincoln delivers the "Gettisburg Adress" (November 19)
Battle of Missionary Ridge Tennessee (November 25)

Grant given control of all Union armies (March 9)
Union Offensive against Lee’s Army of N. Virginia
Gen. Philip Sheridan takes Shenandoah Valley, VA (Oct 19)
Union Offensive against Joe Johnston’s Army of TN
US Congress approves 13 th amendment (Jan 31)
Grant takes Petersburg, VA (April 2)
Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox (April 9)
Lincoln Shot (April 15)
Remaining Confederate Forces Surrender (May)
Victory Parade in Washington (May 23/24)
Abraham Lincoln
Racism and the Civil War (South)
Racism before and after the Civil War
Blacks were largely protected by owners prior to Civil War
Resentment of emancipation fueled existing racism
Freed blacks unprotected by whites after Civil War
Black Codes aimed to establish quasi-slavery after the War in ALL former Confederate states
Parks’ action led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which lasted for over a year. It was led by Martin Luther King. He urged African Americans in Montgomery not to use the city buses and demanded an end to segregation.
In the months during the boycott African Americans in Montgomery were threatened and attacked.
In 1956 the American Supreme Court ruled that segregation on buses was illegal.

• In the 1800s the slaves were freed by President Abraham Lincoln
• After this, in the 1870s Jim Crow laws were introduced
• These laws promoted the idea "separate but equal"
• These laws increased discrimination
• In addition to laws, there were certain unwritten social expectations

In the XX century there were two men of great importance that fought against racial discrimination: Martin Luther King and Kennedy.
Both of them did a lot of things for the black community and they tried to eliminate Jim Crow laws

Barack Obama
Obama was the first african american to be elected president. His election made many people of colour optimistic about the prospect of a change, but, so far, this hope has not been warranted. Lots of people accuse Obama not to pay enough attention to black people's civil rights. Someone says that “white supremacy has lost some of its prestige, but little of its power."

The average Black person in the USA:

Is twice as likely to be out of work

Needs two more year of education to make the same money
The average Black person in the USA:
Has four cents for every dollar a white person has
Dies four years sooner
Is six times more likely to be in prison, in fact the black men incarceration rate is at 20 times the world rate, 40 times the rate in Ghana

The first KKK was born in the Southern United States in the late 1860s
It is a far-right movement which has advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism
The members of the Klan are famous for wearing a white pointed hood which covers their faces and going out in the middle of the night to perform secret rites
During the late XX century there have been many terroristic attacks to the african american community, such as the tennessee shooting, where three KKK members shot four elderly black women; they were released only three months after their incarceration
White Americans are very bad judges of racism: most of them say that “racism is dead” and “I do not see any colour”, yet they still look down on blacks and fear them and african americans still feel the racism

The racial issue today
The three KKK members who took part in the Tennessee shooting

A Ku Klux Klan rite

It represents a milestone in the construction of the future American nation.
Lincoln talks about how human beings are equal, taking as enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. Also argues that the Civil War was a struggle not only for the Union, but the "new birth of freedom" that would have made it really all the same within a single nation finally united.
We are not sure that this speech was pronounced the same.

Gettysburg Address
The 16th President of the United States
Led the United States through its Civil War
Was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky on February 12, 1809. From a family of pioneers, he studied law
In 1833 he was elected to the parliament of Illinois.
In 1860 he was the Republican candidate for president
In 1862, the President issued the Emancipation Proclamation
In 1864 he proposed an amendment against slavery in the Constitution
He was killed by a fan Confederate February 14, 1865
Full transcript