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Sophie's World Project
Transcript of Sophie's World Project
"Everything Tangible in nature flows & can dissolve." Eternal vs. Immutable
"Everything can erode and dissapear but the substance of their being is ever-present." Idealist Rationalist He didn't instruct people,
he asked questions to get
them to use common sense. Plato's portait of Socrates was more important than Socrates himself. Socratic Irony: playing ignorant 5 elements: Fire, Earth, Air, Water, Aether 4 Causes: Material, Formal, Efficient, Final Chance vs. Spontaneity His writings included physics, metaphysics, poetry, theatre,
music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, etc. The Cynics The Stonics Epicureans Plotinus Believed that happiness had nothing to do with material goods. Believed we are all governed by one "universal law," and that we are all part of the same nature. Believed pleasure should be sought in life and pleasure comes from material goods. Believed there were 2 poles:
Light - the One, God
Dark - the absence of light/God "Philosophy is the greatest form of knowledge because it involes world spirit reflecting on itself." Copernicus Galileo Kepler Believed Earth revolved around the sun, unlike the common knowledge of the time that the sun revolved around the Earth. Heliocentic world picture. Earth was a planet. Believed the same physical laws apply everywhere throughout the universe. Planets move in an elliptical orbit around the Sun. Telescope Earth was not alone in having a moon; Jupiter had 4. Law of Inertia Descartes Spinoza Locke Berkeley Hume Certain Knowledge
ex) the existance of God is certain. Dualism Bible is critical. Thought & extension are part of our perception of God. Believed God controlled all through the natural laws. "Perspective of Eternity" Believed sensations were made of complex ideas. There were 2 types of complex ideas: primary and secondary.
Primary were certain things (numbers/sizes). Secondary were things that varied (taste, other senses). Perception is made from impressions or ideas (simple or complex).
Impressions come from how we experience the world. Ideas are our recollection of our impressions. Believed we act according to our feelings not our reason. Believed external reality may have no substance. Our soul comes from our feelings and ideas. We only exist in God's mind. Kant Based his work off the Empiricists & Rationalists Law of Casuality "We cannot know the answers to some questionis because they lie beyond human reason." We all have an innate/moral reason to live. The French Enlightenment was best known for the "Opposition to Authority." Philosophers strived to have one universal religion. Believed we had natural rights & we should fight for them. Reason was the main debate of this time. Schelling Hegel Kieregaard Marx Freud This was the period of the "Worship of the individual Freedom." Art was humanity's greatest form of expression. Nature is the world's spirit. "Nature is a world spirit." The greatest philosopher of the time. World spirit is the sum of all human interactions. Community over Individuals Language forms people, not the other way around. Truth is Subjective Reason changes from generation to generation. "One thought leads to another, more complex, thought & from that we form a combination of the two." Was angered about people's ambivelance about religion. Exisentialism: The existance of each individual. Life has 3 parts:
Aesthetic, Ethical, Religious. "Society is defined by natural resources and material bases." Believed we have unconcious drives
that affect our actions without knowing. Our dreams are our way
of fullfilling our desires. The human mind is made up of 3 parts: ID & Super Ego Conflict
ID - the desire for pleasure.
Ego - Reality, regulates ID
Super Ego - Societal Morality, regulates everything. Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Jostein Gaarder Albert/Hilde Alberto/Sophie