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The Human Person as a Rational Being
Transcript of The Human Person as a Rational Being
Four Theories of the Origin of the Individual Soul
Soul: According to Plato and Aristotle
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-Closely associated with the human SOUL, SPIRIT, and REASON.
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It has been illustrated in the preceding explanations of Plato and Aristotle that human reason is part of the human soul and is a particular characteristic of man. Moreover, it is reason that makes man understand more of his feelings and emotions, and as well as his faith.
The Human Soul
A.) Soul: The Principle of Life
-Signifies both the presence and absence. It also signifies the principle of unity and organization. In greek times, feelings like love and hate, joy and grief, anger and shame, are associated with the soul. Moreover, the soul is also importantly connected with decisiveness and courage, especially in battle. And since emotion obviously goes hand in hand with cognition, in non-philosophical greek of the 5th century treated the soul as the bearer of moral qualities and also as responsible for practical thought and cognition.
-Makes us the highest of all existing beings. This is an ability of a human person that needs to be developed. Because the human person at birth is not equipped with skills necessary for survival, he needs various skills including the training of the human mind in order to continually exchange dialogue with his environment and to cope with the different challenges of life.
The Limits of a Human Person
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Human Person- Exists in this world as a physical and intellectual being.
The Human Person as a Rational Being
It is called "Nephesh" in hebrew, which means "Life".
It is a seat of emotion and affection.
It is called "Ruach" in hebrew. It refers to the immaterial part of man himself.
Seat of our intelligence.
In this theory, it is believed that God is the one who creates a fresh soul for each body. Since the human nature is not merely body nor soul, but the union of the two into one being, the individual human person cannot exist, in this view, before the consummation of this union. Roman catholic and most Reformed and Calvinist churches favor creationism.
Pre-Existence of All Souls
It is a platonic belief, or idea, that the human souls live in another world prior to the union of their bodies. Origin favored pre-existence of souls.
Is the belief that an individual human soul passes through to a succession of lives. No conventional christian denomination believes in reincarnation, but in Hindus, Buddhists, and Jainists do. Some western groups do not believe in reincarnation but they limit it to the human form, where eastern religions feel that reincarnation could involve any living creature.
It is called "traducere" in latin, which means "to hand over to" or "to impart". In this theory, the parents give a new, immaterial life to their children. However, this theory was condemned in the 5th century by the catholic church as it is incompatible with christian teaching.
The human soul, for Aristotle, is the "Entelechy". Entelechy means that things do not just happen, they develop according to the natural design.
The union, therefore, or the body and soul in the human person is the general principle that the living beings are composite beings.
They are designed to have "souls". For Aristotle, soul is the form of the body.
The human soul is both an immaterial and independent being. As an immaterial being, the human soul belongs not in the sensible world but to the intelligible world. As an independent being, it implies two things: pre-existence and survival.
It means that a human soul comes before the human body. This is explained in Plato's doctrine of collection. This doctrine states three essential themes:
1.) That eternal and absolute ideas existed before we were born.
2.) That these ideas were continually reflected or recollected with a human soul.
3.) That the human soul therefore existed before we were born
It is the continuity of the existence of the human soul even after death. This is the doctrine of immortality. The human soul has three parts:
1.) Rational -> Head -> Reasoning -> Knowledge and wisdom
2.) Spirited -> Chest -> Emotions -> Success, Victory, Honor, Respect
3.) Appetitive -> Stomach -> Physical Features -> Hunger, Thirst, Power, Wealth, and Sex
The Hierarchy of Souls
In the aristotelian view, there are three types of souls.
The Vegetative Soul
It is identified with the plants. It refers to the function or the power of nutrition, reproduction, and growth.
The Sensitive Soul
It is identified with the animals. It refers to the power of sensation in addition to the power of vegetation.
It is referred to in the human person. It refers to the power of reasoning.
1.) Human reason makes the human person UNIQUE.
2.) Human reason provides the human person with KNOWLEDGE and TRUTH.
3.) Human reason gives us the ability to make FREE CHOICES.
4.) Human reason makes the human person MORAL BEINGS.
5.) Human reason makes the survival a SUCCESS.
1.) The Experience of Irrationality
Psychological or mental property or function.
Competence - Performance Distinction
Refers to an actual event.
2.) The Exercise of Faith
A human faculty of processing information that we experience through our senses
It is the exercise of believing in something without verifying it.
St. Thomas Aquinas first made a link between reason and faith; philosophy and theology. His common teaching was "philosophy is a handmaid to theology."
3.) Conflict with Emotion
The environment in which thinking , feeling, and action occurring. He states that "emotional education should be, therefore, a considered effort to teach the persons to feel for themselves; in the same sense that their intellectual training should be an effort to teach them to think for themselves".
1.) Christian View of Human Reason
The human person is a preacher of God. Our faculties were fashioned and designed in His image in order to follow after Him. His mind is infinite while ours is finite, but we were made after him and all highest and best thoughts reach up to Him, and find a blessed communion with Him.
2.) Islamic View of Human Reason
Reason is an intermediary between man and God. Active reason played three primary roles in the islamic philosophy.
At the Epistemological Level
It played a role of repository of all intelligibles which constituted the substance of all cognition.
At the Cosmic Level
It performed the function of the mover of the sublunary world and the ultimate cause of all becoming or change in it.
At the Biological Level
It imparted the various "substantial forms" of life and growth (that is, souls) to living organisms, as they become disposed for the reception.
Buddhist View of Human Reason
- Buddhism sees reason and faith as instrumentally opposed each other. Buddhist enlightenment can never be grasped by reason, but by faith
- The idea of purity in Buddhist faith
"Adhimukti"- Literally means "intent", the orientation of one's mind or will.
Among Filipinos, human reason is believed to be within the limits of human existence and not something outside of it for the fact that "reason is endowed by God to man" and is "open elevated to the rank of the divine."
Human reason must be active; it must be useful not in pursuing things hat destroy the dignity of human existence but things that develop a better relationship with God.
The Law Concerning Belief, Reason, and Emotion
Three Forces of Personality:
This connects us to the world.
This helps us to solve the problems of our existence and helps us to understand the world around us intelligently.
This helps us to reason beyond reasons to pursue the path of spirituality so that we may realize truth in a different way.
Trust is an aspect of faith.
Trust brings diverse individuals and groups together so that they can work together and live in harmony, though this does not happen all the time as we don't have enough faith in each other.
Their Importance as a Group
Emotions on their own destabilize our lives. Reason on its own leads us to unlimited ambition and selfishness and in the process endangers the very safety and survival of our existence. Faith on its own binds us to find superstition and dogmatism.
Therefore, we should know when and where to use these three instruments appropriately for the greater benefit of all.
Bring out the best of your emotions in your relationships. Use the best of your reasoning in times of difficulties and when you stand alone in contemplation of God, let the light of your faith shine through your heart.
The importance of human reason can be found in the wide array of functions in man; from just simply making us unique from a moral person from somebody capable of surviving in life. Just for one reason: Reason
Philosophy exalts the image of reason from time immemorial while religion has come to hold on to faith always. The modern age seems convinced that reason is independent from feeling of belief. Yet it is becoming clearer that emotion, feelings, and values take a partnership role with all of our intellectual undertaking