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Erikson Psychosocial Development
Transcript of Erikson Psychosocial Development
Most fundamental stage of life
The development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers
The child is dependent on the mother for food and care.
If the mother provides a predictable environment in which the child's needs are met, a sense of basic trust develops.
This sense of trust implies sameness and continuity from the care-taker, as well as self- trust in one's capacity to cope with urges.
Successful Resolution of this stage leads to a lasting ego quality of
--an enduring belief that wishes can be fulfilled.
Unsuccessful resolution leads to a sense of mistrust in other people and the environment.
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Child learns a sense of autonomy through retention and elimination of urine and feces.
As the child's muscles mature to the point that bodily wastes can be retained or expelled at will, the child experiments with "holding on" or "letting go."
Parents must be firm and tolerant so the child can learn to have control over their bladder and bowels, and also have a sense of self control without loss of self-esteem
From this, emerges a sense of autonomy and pride and the lasting ego quality of
Unsuccessful resolution of this stage leads to lifelong feelings of shame and doubt.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Language skills add to the ability to imagine.
The Oedipal wishes and the ambivalent feelings that accompany them must be repressed to temporarily mask the initiative towards the opposite-sex parent.
While this initiative is a prerequisite for masculine and feminine behaviors later in life, it is now inhibited to avoid the guilt that would accompany knowledge of incestuous thoughts.
Parents assist the child in learning appropriate gender roles.
Successful resolution of this stage leads to a lasting ego quality of
, the courage to pursue goals
Unsuccessful resolution leads to feelings of shame.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Child now enters the school age and is enmeshed in the "world" of school and opportunities for new types of mastery.
As their abilities of skills develop, children desire recognition gained from producing things.
Successful resolution of this stage leads to the development of a sense of industry and a lasting ego quality of
Unsuccessful resolution of this stage leads to lifelong feelings of inferiority and inadequacy.
Erikson Psychosocial Development
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
(early to late 20s)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
(Late Adulthood, 50+)
Key Concepts: Stage 1
Key Concepts: Stage 2
Key Concepts: Stage 3
Key Concepts: Stage 4
Key Concepts: Stage 5
Key Concepts: Stage 6
Key Concept: Stage 7
Key Concepts: Stage 8
Emphasize the social nature of human beings
how social relationships influence development
Provides a general understatement of where the child should be
Provides a broad framework from which to view development throughout the entire lifespan.
Tie together important psychosocial development across the entire lifespan.
Starts beginning of puberty, with physical and hormonal changes, disrupting childhood
Considered most important stage, as an ego identity must now be created
confidence that one's ability to maintain inner sameness and continuity is matched by the sameness and continuity of one's meaning for others
Takes steps towards a tangible future and develops a defined personality
May have an identity crisis as a result of confusion between past and future
New expectations from parents
May turn to religion
Deeply spiritual person as opposed to one who simply conforms to conventional religious beliefs
Unsuccessful resolution can lead to strong doubts about a person's true identity
End of childhood
Period of choosing a career, socializing with opposite sex, marriage, and raising a family
Interpersonal intimacy=task for this stage
: stage of excessive closeness that can be entered without causing discomfort
Failure to resolve this stage can lead to isolation, and a lack of close, meaningful relationships
Can become self-absorbed
Resolution leads to quality of love, or mutual devotion
mutual benefit between one's self and others in the process of seeking growth and edification
He was “adopted” by Freud’s “inner circle” and began training in child psychoanalysis.
Erik Erikson was born in Germany in 1902.
History of Erikson
Freudian concepts were used as the base for Erikson’s work, he added stages including development from young adulthood through old age.
Erikson viewed the ego as having an important role through development as well as mastery of your environment and psychosocial tasks.
Characteristics of Stages
-Each stage is marked by a crisis by which the ego helps you to overcome the crisis in a balanced manor.
-The crisis consists of a conflict between two opposing personality traits or attitudes.
-The resolving of each crisis brings your ego to develop qualities known as virtues or strengths.
-Child gains their sense of autonomy by learning how to go to the bathroom properly without help from adults.
-When the child does not successfully succeed at learning how to properly use the bathroom, shame and self doubt will surface.
-Parent uses language to help child direct initiatives and learn their appropriate gender roles.
-This is important so later on in life child knows it is inappropriate to think of parents or family in a sexual manor.
-Child is now to the point where they are in school learning new skills.
-Children are looking to external sources for praise or punishment of achieving these skills.
-Acquiring these skills help bring the child closer to being a functioning participant of society.
-This is a very critical point of time in a child's life. They are now becoming an adolescent where many things in life can become confusing to understand.
-The emergence of ones identity occurs here, it allows the individual to have a sense of completeness.
-Role confusion or identity crisis is the opposite of securing a role identity. It can bring an individual a lot of confusion and unhappiness.
-During this stage you are working, going to school or making other plans to work towards your future.
-Having a serious significant other can begin now or the desire to want a serious significant other.
- Not having good relationships with friends or family can bring one to become isolated which will greatly impact the quality of love they receive.
Procreation and guidance for next generation
Many who do not have children can accomplish this stage through altruistic activities
"Belief in the species" leads to efforts to improve the world for the future
Unsuccessful resolution of the stage results in self-indulgence
Successful resolution leads to the quality of care, or concern for others
Retrospective reflection of life and accepting the end of life
Achievement of a sense of integrity once content with life choices
Finding meaning in life
Unsuccessful resolution leads to feelings of despair or regret
Can be exhibited through disgust or anger externally, and self-contempt internally
Successful resolution leads to wisdom and a quality of acceptance
-During this stage the act of procreation and providing guidance for young people emerges.
-Simply the act of having a child does not bring resolution of this stage, you need to be an active participant in the childs life.
-By doing this you are considered to have gained the quality of being a caring person and having concern for others.
-This last stage is important because one is supposed to come to terms with their life path and decisions that were made along the way.
-By doing this the person gains meaning and the feeling of being content.
-The last eqo quality to emerge is wisdom.
-Dependability and quality of care givers help develop trust.
-Child's needs have to be met and the environment needs to be predictable.
-When child's needs are not met and the child does not have a consistent predictable environment the child will develop a sense of mistrust.
Stages are not cross cultural
There is no flexibility between stages
It is not a spectrum
The exact mechanisms for resolving conflicts and moving from one stage to the next are not well described
The theory fails to detail exactly what type of experiences are necessary at each stage in order to successfully resolve the conflicts and move to the next stage.