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Copy of AP Bio- Interactions 4: Population Dynamics

4 of 6 of my Interactions Domain. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The InternetProvided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke
by

Dia Shannon

on 21 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of AP Bio- Interactions 4: Population Dynamics

Population
Dynamics

Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biome
Biosphere
Where Are We?
Ecology is the study of organism interactions with each other and the environment.

Ecological processes occur at multiple levels of organization on Earth.

Each level of organization emerges from the processes of the level below it
Big Questions:
Make Sure You Can
How Populations Grow
Theory
Reality
Human Population Growth
All members of a species in a contiguous area.

Populations are dynamic.
Organisms enter a population in 2 ways:
Birth
Immigration

Organisms leave a population in 2 ways:
Death
Emigration
Model 1: Exponential Growth
Model 2: Logistic Growth
The growth of a population continues indefinitely.
Assumes no resource limitation.

Can be described by:

change in number of individuals (
dN
)
change in time (
dt
)

(
r
): the "
per capita rate of increase
", how many offspring per individual in the population
As long as (r) is a positive value, a population will continue to increase at an exponential rate.

Higher (r) values will lead to faster rates of increase.

if (r) is 0, the population will not increase or decrease.

if (r) is negative, the population will decrease.
The growth of a population decreases as the population approaches the "
carrying capacity
" (
K
) of the environment.

Models resource limitations.

The effect of (K) on (r) becomes greater as (N) approaches (K)
How are real populations structured?
How do real populations grow?
How does evolution effect life history traits?
How does the environment affect population growth?
Measuring Population Size
Population Distribution
Population Demographics
It can be difficult to estimate population size accurately.

"
Mark-Recapture
": 1 common method
Capture and mark members of the population.
Release them.
Recapture members of the population.

Number of marked individuals Recaptured marked individuals
=
Total population size Total recaptured individuals
Individuals tend to be distributed in three major patterns:
Clumped
Uniform
Random
Demographics: The study of a population's vital statistics and how they change over time.
Demographic Data can be arranged in tables (e.g.
life tables
,
reproductive tables
), or graphs (e.g.
survivorship curves
).
There are 3 major types of survivorship curves demonstrated in real populations:
Exponential Growth
Typically occurs in small populations, well below the carrying capacity of the environment.
Logistic Growth
Much more common. Typically populations oscillate around the carrying capacity.
Life History Traits
:
Any trait that affects an organism's life table.

Costs and benefits of all adaptations.
Reproductive strategies
Parental Care
Semelparity
: Produce a lot of offspring, once.

Iteroparity
: Produce a few offspring, repeatedly
Number of babies varies inversely with amount of parental care
R-Selected
vs.
K-Selected
Selection for traits that maximize reproductive success at low-population densities
Selection for traits that maximize reproductive success at high population densities
The effect of population density on population growth
Density Dependent Population Regulation
Competition
Predation
Territoriality
Waste
Accumulation
Intrinsic Factors
Disease
The underlying root of all
anthropogenic
ecological problems

Historical Human Growth Rate
The human population has been in a period of accelerated exponential growth since the industrial revolution...

...that growth rate is slowing
The decrease in growth rate is not uniform across the globe.
As countries industrialize, various changes in demographics occur (the "
demographic transition
")
It is, as of yet, unclear what the global carrying capacity for the human population is.
How are populations structured?

How are populations affected by the environment?
Explain how populations can be mathematically modeled.

Describe the relationships among all terms in population models.

Compare ideal populations to real-world populations.

Explain patterns of life-history, distribution, and survivorship.

Explain the costs and benefits of particular life-history characteristic adaptations and strategies.

Describe historical and current trends in the human population.
A comparison of the exponential and logistic growth models for a population
N = ~1,100
The Agave Plant: Semelparous
Elephants (and all mammals): Iteroparous
Data showing parental survivorship as a function of brood size in kestrels.
"Age-Structure Pyramids"
Human Population Growth
Full transcript