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The Cell Cycle and Mitosis.
Transcript of The Cell Cycle and Mitosis.
-Anaphase is the fourth (and most awesome) step of the cell cycle
-During this step, the chromasomes split and the sister chromosomes are dragged to opposite ends of the cell by the spindle apparatus
-Long microtublules come out of the spindle apparatus at each end of the cell and stretch toward the sister chromatids
-This can be likened unto a fisherman throwing out his line
At the end of prophase, all the centrosomes have aligned at opposite end of the cell and chromosomes are being moved toward the center of the cell.
For most cells, the majority of their life is spent in interphase. Some spend their whole life there.
This is the final stage of mitosis.
New nuclear envleopes form around the two groups of chromosomes.
Two seperate nuclei form near the chromosomes with the same genetic information as the original nucleus.
Chromosomes return to chromatin form.
Nucleoli reform in each new envelope.
The spindle apparatus breaks apart.
Interphase has 3 phases. G1, S, and G2.
Most of the cell's normal functions are carried out during interphase, such as growth and protein synthesis,
Metaphase can occupy a large portion of the total time of mitosis because chromosome alignment at the center of the cell on the metaphase plate acts as a checkpoint for progression into the next phase, anaphase. Cells can arrest in metaphase for days until the chromosomes are properly aligned and the cell enters anaphase.
G1 means "first gap". This is the first step. It is the long period of time following mitosis.
-The microtubules attach to the centromeres of the sister chromatids and they begin to split
-This is like the fisherman hooking a fish and beginning to reel it in.
The S phase is the second step. This is when the cell replicates DNA.
-The individual chromosomes are pulled to each end of the cell
-This is so that at the end, the two new cells have identical DNA
-The fisherman has caught the fish
G2 is when the cell carres out normal functions and may continue growth. Towards the end, cytoplasmic organelles replicate to prepare for the cell to divide.
-Prophase is the second step of mitosis
-During prophase, the chromosomes prepare to be lined up and split
By Emily Maxwell, Ana-lee Beard, Mikayla Meeks, Bailey Stewart, and Vance Rickman
-the end of the cell cycle; happens simultaniously with telephase
The cell membrane is pinched into two equal parts that each have a nucleus and organelles.
A cell plate forms between the divided nuclei. It is developes into a seperating membrane and a cell wall forms.
Telophase and Cytokinesis Video
-Chromosomes become more coiled and can be seen under a light microscope
-Each duplicated chromosome is seen as a pair of sister chromatids joined by the centromere.
-At the end of prophase the nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappears.
The main procedure of Metaphase is the alining of the chromasomes. The chromasomes will aline in the middle of the cell. Then each chromasome will conect to a spidle fiber at its centromere. The spile fibers will pull the chromasomes to opposite ends of the cell.
This is what interphase looks like as it goes through the 3 phases. In G2, you can see that the cytoplasmic organelles have replicated and the cell is prepared to divide.