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N5 Human Geography: Urban Topic Revision

Revision of Human Geography, Urban Topic: Glasgow VS Rio de Janeiro
by

Mr T Simpson

on 14 March 2018

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Transcript of N5 Human Geography: Urban Topic Revision

Revision Prezi
Remember that this revision Prezi is designed to be used alongside your class notes. Use them to remind yourself about the topic prior to an assessment or before your final exam - this is not intended to be a single source of revision!
The Structure of Cities in the Developed World
Most cities in the developed world expanded rapidly after the industrial revolution. Glasgow, was no exception as it became an important city for heavy industry such as shipbuilding.

Urban models for developed world cities tend to radiate out from the 'CBD' (Central Business District), followed by the 'Inner City', the 'Inner' then 'Outer Suburbs', lastly the city is surrounded by an area of countryside called the 'Green Belt'

Recognising Different Urban Areas on an OS Map
Solutions to Glasgow's Inner City Housing Problem
GLASGOW: CBD
CBD
COMPREHENSIVE REDEVELOPMENT
Comprehensive redevelopment is where large areas of tenements are completed bulldozed. This happened in 29 inner city areas of Glasgow (known as Comprehensive Development Areas or CDAs) including parts of Govan, Partick, Springburn and the Gorbals.

This took place in Glasgow between 1957 and 1975 and was responsible for enormous changes to the inner city.
HIGH RISE BLOCKS
As the option of building council estates on the edge of the city was very expensive, the space cleared by the demolition of tenements in the inner city could be used to construct high rise flats, a cheaper and quicker option to rehouse thousands of families.

Glasgow built more of these tower blocks flats than any other city in Europe; over 300 in total.
NEW TOWNS
Five new towns were built in Scotland during the 1950s and 1960s within 25 km of Glasgow and Edinburgh to house the overspill from the inner cities. East Kilbride is the largest of these towns with a population today of over 80,000.

New towns were “self-contained”, planned settlements, built in the countryside with all the necessary jobs and services for residents. Industrial estates were created at the edge of the town and industries, often from overseas, were given incentives such as brand new factories, loans and grants to locate here and create jobs.
TENEMENT RENOVATION
In the late 1970s it was decided to improve the existing tenements, rather than demolish them. Thankfully not all of the tenements had been flattened during the comprehensive redevelopment of the 1950s and 60s. The buildings were actually sound structures and providing they were modernised, they could become excellent homes.
Main changes in Glasgow's CBD include:

The building of covered shopping malls e.g. Buchanan Galleries
As land values are high, the shops tend to be high-end or chains to be able to afford to stay open in the CBD.
Specialist shopping areas have been crated such as the Italian Centre with Armani and other exclusive brand stores.
There have also been improvements to transport to improve traffic flows. The subway has also been modernised.
Some streets have been pedestrianised e.g. Buchanan Street, Sauchiehall Street

The Structure of Cities in the Developing World
Developing world cities, such as Mumbai, have rapidly expanded over the last few decades. This has mainly been due to increased rural > urban migration compared to the developed world. This is due to a variety of 'push' and 'pull' factors but generally an aspiration to seek a higher standard of living.
Cities in developing countries also have a CBD containing many services and tall buildings like developed cities, although traditional street markets are also located here. Around the CBD is an area of high quality housing with luxury apartments. The people who live here work nearby in services in the CBD. Outside this area the Periferia is found. On the edge of the city, the shanty towns or favelas can be found. This is generally the first port of call fro migrants from rural areas. The poorest people live here. Industry is found along the main transport routes such as main roads and railways.
Mumbai's Bustees / Shanty Towns
In reality, there are not enough jobs or houses for all the migrants when they arrive. With no place to stay, they have set up their homes on what land is available (often swampy, poor quality land) and built their houses from basic materials. These illegal squatter settlements are known as bustees.
DHARAVI
Dharavi is the largest bustee (or shanty town) Mumbai, India.

It is the second-largest slum in the continent of Asia (after Orangi Town in Pakistan) and the third-largest slum in the world, with an area of just over 2.1 square kilometres. Holding a population of around 700,000 and a population density of over 277,136/km2, Dharavi is one of the densest areas in the world.
The main problems in Dharavi
POOR HOUSING AND SERVICES
Lack of space in shanty towns means there are not enough homes for everyone so homelessness is an issue. The homes that do exist also lack basic facilities such as clean water, electricity and sewage
disposal systems leading to health problems, including the spread of
diseases such as typhoid and cholera.

The houses are makeshift and built with materials available to the local people. Where they have electricity it is likely to be illegally connected and are liable to overload and start fires.
UNEMPLOYMENT & POOR QUALITY WORK
Many people have poor jobs, such as those who work to sift the rubbish in the tips where children and women sift through the rubbish for valuable waste. They have to work under the hot sun in appalling conditions. They earn around a
£1 a day
for their work.
POOR SANITATION & ACCESS TO CLEAN DRINKING WATER
Exam:
Need to know ...

You need to know the following about GLASGOW:
1/3 of the population of Dharavi have no access to clean drinking water at all
.

There is a serious sanitation problem in Dharavi, with
poor drainage systems causing the spread of diseases
and serious public health problems. This is made worse by the annual monsoons, with the flooding leading to increased spreading of contagious diseases.

In Dharavi there are 4000 cases of disease reported every day. Recent figures suggest that there is only
one toilet for every 1440 people
.
Improving Shanty Towns
SELF-HELP SCHEMES
WHAT DO THE LOCALS DO?
People get together in small groups to help each other improve their houses
Wooden shacks are replaced with brick and tile buildings
Many homes now have electricity and satellite TV
Some of the roads have been paved
Some houses are served with mains water
OTHER SOLUTIONS TO HOUSING PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI:
People have been evicted and houses bulldozed. This failed because the people just build elsewhere in the city

People have been relocated to safer areas with basic amenities supplied. But, the people often resist this move because they will be too far from their work

The authorities can improve the housing, by providing toilets, standpipes, schools, reinforcing the walls and giving the people legal rights to the land. Some areas, however, are so overcrowded that it is difficult to improve them.

The residents form co-operative groups and organise improvements themselves.
'NEW BOMBAY'
As Mumbai could not provide for its entire people so the city authority started to build a new town called New Bombay, as an extension to Mumbai. The hope was it would reduce overcrowding in Mumbai and have jobs and services for everyone. At present it does not and people still have to travel into Mumbai everyday, making congestion worse.
'I Can'
Checklist
Use your 'can do' checklist before your revision to check which areas you should focus your revision on or after you completed revision to check your learning.
Main rail stations
Tourist info. centre
Main roads converge
Many churches
Main bus station
Grid-iron street pattern
Town Hall
Lack of open space
INNER CITY
Often next to railways, rivers, canals etc.
Housing found next to industry
Still many churches
Rows of tenement housing
Grid-iron street pattern
High density, little open space
INNER SUBURBS
More services e.g. schools
Less churches
Main roads through housing areas
Mainly straight, grid-iron street pattern
Industry close to housing
More open space
OUTER SUBURBS
Good road access to CBD around housing
Pleasant environment
Lots of open space
Detached & Semi-detached houses with gardens
Crescents and cul-de-sacs
Normally found on the city edge
Recent developments in the CBD
Recent developments in the inner city
Change in rural/urban fringe

GLASGOW: Urban/Rural Fringe
The main change is a rise in the number of out of town shopping centres. They are very popular with shoppers and retailers as:

• They are very accessible as they locate near motorways and main roads
• They have plenty of free car parking spaces
• They open until late in the evening which suits people who work
• Land on the outskirts of town also tends to be much cheaper allowing very large stores and car parks to be built
• Other leisure services such as hotels, cinemas, ten-pin bowling alleys and fast food outlets such as McDonalds and Pizza Hut also locate in them.
Why make these changes?:

Covered shopping malls attract customers from all over the city and can be accessed via multi-story car parks and often feature restaurants and leisure facilities.
To encourage more people to live in the city centre, buildings such as old factories and warehouses have been converted into modern flats. These are attractive to young professionals who want to reduce commuting costs and have quick access to facilities in the CBD.
Regeneration of these buildings and other projects help to improve the environment in the CBD.

Why make any changes?:

Many high street stores were closing and moving to out-of-town sites as rents in the CBD were too high and often the units available were not suitable for their needs.
City centres often have many parking restrictions, including one way streets, double-yellow lines etc. Which puts people off travelling to these areas as it is difficult to park and expensive when you find a space.

GLASGOW: INNER CITY
Why make these changes?:

Covered shopping malls attract customers from all over the city and can be accessed via multi-story car parks and often feature restaurants and leisure facilities.
To encourage more people to live in the city centre, buildings such as old factories and warehouses have been converted into modern flats. These are attractive to young professionals who want to reduce commuting costs and have quick access to facilities in the CBD.
Regeneration of these buildings and other projects help to improve the environment in the CBD.

Why make any changes?:

Many high street stores were closing and moving to out-of-town sites as rents in the CBD were too high and often the units available were not suitable for their needs.
City centres often have many parking restrictions, including one way streets, double-yellow lines etc. Which puts people off travelling to these areas as it is difficult to park and expensive when you find a space.

The problems:

Many areas suffered from urban decay - meaning they were run-down and derelict.
The buildings were unsightly, often quickly build tenement blocks for factory workers.
Streets were narrow and were smoke filled from factories.
Tenements had little outdoor space.
The tenements were very overcrowded often without double-glazing, central heading and indoor bathrooms. Disease could spread easily.
When the factories closed, unemployment rose, as did crime and vandalism in these areas.

THE "NEW GORBALS"
Across the river from the Merchant City is one of Glasgow's most deprived neighbourhoods, the Gorbals. With the demolition of some of the high rise flats, there was land available for development. Some of this has been sold to private house builders who have built private flats.

The new housing being created is helping to reduce crime in the area and is helping to give back community spirit.
Urban
Sprawl
URBAN SPRAWL is the outward growth of a settlement from urban areas into rural areas. Meaning that areas that were previously 'green belt' or farming land become 'urbanised'.
For ABERDEEN think about new developments around the airport and new business parks like PRIME FOUR at Kingswells and CITY SOUTH near Portlethen

... But aren't these good things?
URBAN SPRAWL isn't always looked at in a positive light. Disadvantages of URBAN SPRAWL include:

Loss of green space and farmland
Traffic levels increase at rush hour times
Increased pollution levels
Wildlife can be driven away
Commuter areas, e.g. Kingswells, grow in size (population) but may not get new or better facilities to cope with this
House prices can increase
MUMBAI 'SLUM' REDEVELOPMENT
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