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N5 Human Geography: Urban Topic Revision

Revision of Human Geography, Urban Topic: Glasgow VS Rio de Janeiro
by

Mr T Simpson

on 24 August 2017

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Transcript of N5 Human Geography: Urban Topic Revision

Revision Prezi
Remember that this revision Prezi is designed to be used alongside your class notes. Use them to remind yourself about the topic prior to an assessment or before your final exam - this is not intended to be a single source of revision!
The Structure of Cities in the Developed World
Most cities in the developed world expanded rapidly after the industrial revolution. Glasgow, was no exception as it became an important city for heavy industry such as shipbuilding.

Urban models for developed world cities tend to radiate out from the 'CBD' (Central Business District), followed by the 'Inner City', the 'Inner' then 'Outer Suburbs', lastly the city is surrounded by an area of countryside called the 'Green Belt'

Recognising Different Urban Areas on an OS Map
Solutions to Glasgow's Inner City Housing Problem
GLASGOW: CBD
CBD
COMPREHENSIVE REDEVELOPMENT
Comprehensive redevelopment is where large areas of tenements are completed bulldozed. This happened in 29 inner city areas of Glasgow (known as Comprehensive Development Areas or CDAs) including parts of Govan, Partick, Springburn and the Gorbals.

This took place in Glasgow between 1957 and 1975 and was responsible for enormous changes to the inner city.
HIGH RISE BLOCKS
As the option of building council estates on the edge of the city was very expensive, the space cleared by the demolition of tenements in the inner city could be used to construct high rise flats, a cheaper and quicker option to rehouse thousands of families.

Glasgow built more of these tower blocks flats than any other city in Europe; over 300 in total.
NEW TOWNS
Five new towns were built in Scotland during the 1950s and 1960s within 25 km of Glasgow and Edinburgh to house the overspill from the inner cities. East Kilbride is the largest of these towns with a population today of over 80,000.

New towns were “self-contained”, planned settlements, built in the countryside with all the necessary jobs and services for residents. Industrial estates were created at the edge of the town and industries, often from overseas, were given incentives such as brand new factories, loans and grants to locate here and create jobs.
TENEMENT RENOVATION
In the late 1970s it was decided to improve the existing tenements, rather than demolish them. Thankfully not all of the tenements had been flattened during the comprehensive redevelopment of the 1950s and 60s. The buildings were actually sound structures and providing they were modernised, they could become excellent homes.
Main changes in Glasgow's CBD include:

The building of covered shopping malls e.g. Buchanan Galleries
As land values are high, the shops tend to be high-end or chains to be able to afford to stay open in the CBD.
Specialist shopping areas have been crated such as the Italian Centre with Armani and other exclusive brand stores.
There have also been improvements to transport to improve traffic flows. The subway has also been modernised.
Some streets have been pedestrianised e.g. Buchanan Street, Sauchiehall Street

The Structure of Cities in the Developing World
Developing world cities, such as Rio de Janeiro, have rapidly expanded over the last few decades. This has mainly been due to increased rural > urban migration compared to the developed world. This is due to a variety of 'push' and 'pull' factors but generally an aspiration to seek a higher standard of living.
Cities in developing countries also have a CBD containing many services and tall buildings like developed cities, although traditional street markets are also located here. Around the CBD is an area of high quality housing with luxury apartments. The people who live here work nearby in services in the CBD. Outside this area the Periferia is found. On the edge of the city, the shanty towns or favelas can be found. This is generally the first port of call fro migrants from rural areas. The poorest people live here. Industry is found along the main transport routes such as main roads and railways.
Rio's Shanty Towns or 'Favelas'
In reality, there are not enough jobs or houses for all the migrants when they arrive. With no place to stay, they have set up their homes on many of Rio’s hillsides and unused areas (swamps and rubbish dumps) and built their houses from basic materials. These illegal squatter settlements are known as favelas. The name comes from a wild flower which grows on the hillsides. Rio has over 600 favelas.
ROÇHINHA
Roçhinha is Rio’s largest and oldest favela with an estimated population of 200,000. This area of slum housing is found on a very steep hillside in Rio’s South Zone, overlooking the beach districts of Copacabana and Ipanema.

Roçhinha’s first shacks were built in the 1940s, but the main growth of the area was during the 1970s and 1980s with the construction of Barra da Tijuca, a nearby wealthy suburb. Migrants were attracted by the prospect of jobs in the construction industry.
The main problems of the 'Favelas'
POOR HOUSING AND SERVICES
Lack of space means the favelas housing results in homelessness. They lack basic facilities such as clean water, electricity and sewage
disposal systems leading to health problems, including the spread of
diseases such as typhoid and cholera.

The favela houses are makeshift and built with materials available to the local people. Where they have electricity it is likely to be illegally connected 'gatos' liable to overload and start fires.
LACK OF JOBS
Unemployment rates are high (around 20%). Most of those who are employed have jobs in the informal sector (black market) as street vendors, drivers, labourers, maids or producing sewing and handicraft work for the local street market. Jobs in the informal sector are poorly paid (less than $100 a month) and work is irregular.
OVERCROWDING AND POOR HEALTH
CRIME
Rio’s favelas are controlled by criminal gangs who are involved in drugs, gun crime, bank robberies, kidnapping and murder – 80 people are killed each day in Rio. Roçhinha is one of Rio’s most feared areas and the police hardly ever patrol on foot unless they are heavily armed. If a problem develops they will often shoot down from a helicopter into the slum.
Exam:
Need to know ...

You need to know the following about GLASGOW:
Rio’s favelas are incredibly overcrowded. On average 37,000 people are crammed into each square kilometre of favela. With the poor sanitation, diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea spread quickly. The life expectancy in a Rio favela is only 56. Infant mortality rates are also high: 50 infants per 1000 will not reach the age of one.
Improving the 'Favelas'
SELF-HELP SCHEMES
WHAT DO THE LOCALS DO?
People get together in small groups to help each other improve their houses
Wooden shacks are replaced with brick and tile buildings
Many homes now have electricity and satellite TV
Some of the roads have been paved
Some houses are served with mains water
SELF-HELP SCHEMES
THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES AIM TO:
Spend £200 million to improve 60 of the 600 shanty town areas in the city
Replace wooden buildings or those on dangerously steep slopes with new larger houses
Widen selected streets for emergency services and waste collection vehicles to get through
Make proper solid roads and pavements
Lay pipes for water and cables for electricity
Improve sanitation (sewers)
Add health facilities, schools and sports areas
SELF-HELP SCHEMES
DID IT SOLVE ALL THE PROBLEMS IN THE FAVELAS?
Crime rates are still high, with violence and drug related crime major problems
Unemployment is still at very high levels amongst residents
It is difficult to improve many areas because the hillsides are so steep
Landslides can still claim many lives
'Can do'
Checklist
You can also use your 'can do' checklist before your revision to check which areas you should focus your revision on or after you completed revision to check your learning.
Main rail stations
Tourist info. centre
Main roads converge
Many churches
Main bus station
Grid-iron street pattern
Town Hall
Lack of open space
INNER CITY
Often next to railways, rivers, canals etc.
Housing found next to industry
Still many churches
Rows of tenement housing
Grid-iron street pattern
High density, little open space
INNER SUBURBS
More services e.g. schools
Less churches
Main roads through housing areas
Mainly straight, grid-iron street pattern
Industry close to housing
More open space
OUTER SUBURBS
Good road access to CBD around housing
Pleasant environment
Lots of open space
Detached & Semi-detached houses with gardens
Crescents and cul-de-sacs
Normally found on the city edge
Recent developments in the CBD
Recent developments in the inner city
Change in rural/urban fringe

GLASGOW: Urban/Rural Fringe
The main change is a rise in the number of out of town shopping centres. They are very popular with shoppers and retailers as:

• They are very accessible as they locate near motorways and main roads
• They have plenty of free car parking spaces
• They open until late in the evening which suits people who work
• Land on the outskirts of town also tends to be much cheaper allowing very large stores and car parks to be built
• Other leisure services such as hotels, cinemas, ten-pin bowling alleys and fast food outlets such as McDonalds and Pizza Hut also locate in them.
Why make these changes?:

Covered shopping malls attract customers from all over the city and can be accessed via multi-story car parks and often feature restaurants and leisure facilities.
To encourage more people to live in the city centre, buildings such as old factories and warehouses have been converted into modern flats. These are attractive to young professionals who want to reduce commuting costs and have quick access to facilities in the CBD.
Regeneration of these buildings and other projects help to improve the environment in the CBD.

Why make any changes?:

Many high street stores were closing and moving to out-of-town sites as rents in the CBD were too high and often the units available were not suitable for their needs.
City centres often have many parking restrictions, including one way streets, double-yellow lines etc. Which puts people off travelling to these areas as it is difficult to park and expensive when you find a space.

GLASGOW: INNER CITY
Why make these changes?:

Covered shopping malls attract customers from all over the city and can be accessed via multi-story car parks and often feature restaurants and leisure facilities.
To encourage more people to live in the city centre, buildings such as old factories and warehouses have been converted into modern flats. These are attractive to young professionals who want to reduce commuting costs and have quick access to facilities in the CBD.
Regeneration of these buildings and other projects help to improve the environment in the CBD.

Why make any changes?:

Many high street stores were closing and moving to out-of-town sites as rents in the CBD were too high and often the units available were not suitable for their needs.
City centres often have many parking restrictions, including one way streets, double-yellow lines etc. Which puts people off travelling to these areas as it is difficult to park and expensive when you find a space.

The problems:

Many areas suffered from urban decay - meaning they were run-down and derelict.
The buildings were unsightly, often quickly build tenement blocks for factory workers.
Streets were narrow and were smoke filled from factories.
Tenements had little outdoor space.
The tenements were very overcrowded often without double-glazing, central heading and indoor bathrooms. Disease could spread easily.
When the factories closed, unemployment rose, as did crime and vandalism in these areas.

THE "NEW GORBALS"
Across the river from the Merchant City is one of Glasgow's most deprived neighbourhoods, the Gorbals. With the demolition of some of the high rise flats, there was land available for development. Some of this has been sold to private house builders who have built private flats.

The new housing being created is helping to reduce crime in the area and is helping to give back community spirit.
Urban
Sprawl
URBAN SPRAWL is the outward growth of a settlement from urban areas into rural areas. Meaning that areas that were previously 'green belt' or farming land become 'urbanised'.
For ABERDEEN think about new developments around the airport and new business parks like PRIME FOUR at Kingswells and CITY SOUTH near Portlethen

... But aren't these good things?
URBAN SPRAWL isn't always looked at in a positive light. Disadvantages of URBAN SPRAWL include:

Loss of green space and farmland
Traffic levels increase at rush hour times
Increased pollution levels
Wildlife can be driven away
Commuter areas, e.g. Kingswells, grow in size (population) but may not get new or better facilities to cope with this
House prices can increase
Full transcript