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The 1700s: The Evolution of Ideas & Conflict
Transcript of The 1700s: The Evolution of Ideas & Conflict
Once again, war erupted between the British and French on the North American continent.
Unlike past wars, the Seven Year War had its origins in North America.
The British leadership prioritized the capture of Quebec.
However, the Chain-of-Command in New France was often divided. This created confusion among French forces.
As months turned to years, violence on land and water continued to increase.
After capturing Louisbourg in 1758, British troops, under the leadership of a young general named James Wolfe, gradually made their way to Quebec.
It was here that the most important battle in the North American theater of the war took place...
The Seven Year War (1756-1763)
The Defeat of New France
The Capture of Quebec (September 1759)
Battle of Quiberon Bay (November 1759)
Battle of Sainte-Foy (April 1760)
Class Discussion Question: Why do you think winning a major sea battle would be important to the British and French?
The United Kingdom
Treaty of Paris (1763)
The Kingdom of France
On February 10, 1763, The Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the Seven Year War.
As part of the peace agreement, the French transferred "Canada and all of its Dependencies," to the British. They only retained control of Saint-Pierre, Miquelon Islands, and part of the Newfoundland coast for fishing purposes.
In exchange for these territories, the British agreed to allow the French Canadian inhabitants to sell their property and leave the country for a place of their own choosing if they did not wish to live under British rule.
Those who chose to remain were allowed to freely practice the Roman Catholic faith.
Where: Heights of Abraham, outside of Quebec
When: September 13, 1759
Who: Approximately 4426 British troops under the command of General James Wolfe. Approximately 4400 French troops under the command of Louis-Joseph de Montcalm
Outcome: Decisive British victory. Death of Wolfe and Montcalm.
Battle of the Plains of Abraham (1759)
The Conquest meant different things to different people at different times...
For Example: While negotiations of the Treaty of Paris were taking place, the French Philosophe Voltaire declared to the King of France that the Conquest of Quebec meant little more than the loss of a "few acres of snow." However, in 2009, thousands of people gathered on the Plains of Abraham to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the famous battle.
The Conquest had many consequences during the eighteenth century that continue to socially, politically, culturally, legally, and emotionally affect North Americans...
La Conquête... Does it Matter?
The Aftermath of the English Civil War...
Although the Glorious Revolution brought significant changes to Britain, the rest of Europe remained under the control of monarch who believed in the
Divine right of Kings
of the civil war would have unintended consequences on Western philosophy and take the rivalries between European nation-states to new heights...
Also known as the
"Age of Reason"
, the Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that advocated
as being of the highest importance.
If a belief could not stand up to reason, it was believed to be disposable.
Followers of the Enlightenment believed that reason could
create a perfect world
unlock the mysteries of the universe
This faith in reason often put them at odds against
teachings and authorities
The "English" Enlightenment
but also the horror and outcome of the English Civil War
English intellectuals came to believe that everything from explaining
, and resolving disagreements over
could be accomplished with reason
The competing ideas of
would make their way to Europe and beyond...
The "French" Enlightenment
Events and ideas in Britain influenced the
, men and women who met to discuss politics and ways to solve social problems
Women were especially important to the spread of new ideas. They held
, meetings where ideas about society, religion, and government could be exchanged.
Many philosophes rejected Divine Right of Kings in favour of democracy which had been gained by revolution in England
Others believed science rather than religion had the ability to explain the world
The ideas of
Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu
spread across Europe and the Atlantic...
The "American" Enlightenment
Influenced by ideas from England and France, thinkers in the
Thirteen American Colonies
also took part in the Age of Reason
First Nation peoples
shaped American beliefs in
religious tolerance, political freedom, government structure, and democracy
While the writings of
inspired republic revolutionaries in America and France, the scientific work of
would lead to important discoveries and inventions...
Despite the spread of new ideas, rivalry between European kingdoms intensified.
Although traditional adversaries, their contest for resources and territories would transform
North America, the Caribbean, the West Coast of Africa, and the Indian Subcontinent
into battlegrounds for supremacy.
Inevitably, there conflicts would have lasting consequences on
around the world...