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Blood Doping and EPO

Honors Option, PSL 250 SS13
by

Emily Davidow

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Blood Doping and EPO

Emily Davidow
Honors Option
PSL 250 SS13 Blood Doping
& EPO Blood doping is illegally boosting the red blood cell (RBC) count in the body What is Blood Doping? 1. Homologous: using ones own blood
2. Autologous: using a matched blood donors blood Types of blood doping Benefits:
Increased athletic performance
Longer ability for aerobic activity
Less fatigue
**This is all due to increased amount of oxygen getting to organs and tissues around the body Benefits and Risks Blood doping and EPO is particularly popular in endurance sports such as swimming, cycling, marathon running, etc. due to the enhancement of performance
This is illegal and highly banned in athletics (such as the Olympics) Who blood dopes and why? What is EPO? EPO (Erythropoietin) is a naturally produced hormone
Produced and released by the kidneys
Promotes bone marrow to produce red blood cells EPO can be synthetically manufactured and directly entered into the blood stream via injection (like a shot at the Doctor's office) Risks:
Increase in blood viscosity
Receiving a blood-borne pathogen
Decrease in cardiac output (CO)
If used repeatedly, can result in autoimmune (self-attack) response from the body EPO injections are also used medically in cases involving kidney disease onset anemia
This will help the patient increase the # of RBC present in the body Testing for blood doping and EPO use A simple urine or blood test can be done to detect any banned substances in the body Detection of unnaturally high RBC count in the body is evidence of blood doping

Normal levels of RBC in the body:
Women: ~35-45% of blood
Men: ~40-50% of blood

The detection of high amounts of matured (versus immature) RBCs in the body is also evidence of blood doping and EPO injection Random blood and urine screenings are now done to athletes who are nearing an event to check for banned substances

It is suspected that abuse of blood doping and EPO use has been done since the 1970's
First detection of blood doping was during the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Russia
Blood doping was outlawed in 1986 Stimulation Index:
Equation involving Hemoglobin count in the body
Used as a "set point" (or control) to determine if blood doping or EPO injection had been done
Normal score = about 90. Scores over 133 is considered evidence for blood doping There is a large movement towards athletes not blood doping or using EPO injections to enhance performance.
This is primarily promoted by The World Anti-Doping Agency After years of investigation and speculation by fans and anti-drug administrations, in an interview between Oprah Winfrey and Lance Armstrong, Armstrong admitted to blood doping and use of banned substances (like EPO) during his seven winning titles of Le Tour De France.

(Part of interview)

Oprah: "In your opinion, was it humanly possible to win The Tour De France without doping, seven times in a row?"
Armstrong: "Not in my opinion" Blood (1-4 units) removed from donor or self several weeks before competition
*Unit = 450 mls*
The blood removed is centrifuged (spun fast to separate particles) so that RBCs primarily remain
This blood with high RBC count is frozen and stored for later use During this time, the athletes body will naturally try to reproduce the RBCs that were lost. Around 1 week before competition, stored RBCs are reinfused into athletes body EPO (synthetically produced) is injected into the blood stream EPO stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs New and more (than normal) RBC are released into the circulatory system Higher RBC concentration in blood More hemoglobin (Hgb) molecules in blood More oxygen transported through blood stream to cells around the body Better performance!! Viscosity of blood = thickness Higher viscosity of blood requires more work from the cardiovascular system (Heart) How blood doping and EPO work in the body Blood Doping: EPO injection: VO2 Max This is the human body's natural limit on the amount of oxygen that can be transported and used during activity Calculated by:
Cardiac output X difference in oxygen content between the arteries and veins Alternative option: Altitude Training Altitude training is when athletes train at a higher altitude than they are used to
This makes the body naturally produce more RBCs in response to the lower amount of oxygen available at higher altitudes (example of homeostasis!)
Preferably over 8,000 feet above sea level Hemoglobin (Hgb) Works Cited Hemoglobin is the oxygen-carrying
protein in the RBCs

Hgb makes up ~35% of the RBC's content
Hgb binds to oxygen in the lungs. The oxygen is then carried via the bloodstream to all other tissues and cells in the body (such as muscles), where the oxygen is released for use
Carbon dioxide is picked up for excretion via the respiratory system (breathing)
Deoxygenated RBCs continue through the circulatory system Without Hgb, oxygen
would not be
delivered to cells around the body Help stop doping! The World Anti-Doping Agency aims to "level the playing field" for athletes all around the world To help fight against blood doping and the use of EPO/other banned substances, visit www.wada-ama.org and help spread awareness! Blood doping was actually practiced in the US military in 1933! Armstrong, Lance. "Lance Armstrong Talks to Oprah." Interview by Oprah Winfrey. Oprah Winfrey Network. Oprah Winfrey, 16 Jan. 2013. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

"Blood Doping." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.

"Blood Doping: Types, Risks, and Tests." WebMD. Ed. Louise Chang, MD. WebMD, 19 July 2012. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.

Dixon, Suzanne, MPH, RD. "Hemoglobin." About.com. About.com, 8 Dec. 2011. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.

Eichner, E. Randy. "Sports anemia, iron supplements, and blood doping." Medicine and science in sports and exercise 24 (1992): S315-S315.

"Say No! To Doping." YouTube. World Anti-Doping Agency, 31 Jan. 2012. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.

"VO2 Max." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.

"World Anti-Doping Agency." World Anti-Doping Agency. World Anti-Doping Agency, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2013.

Zorzoli, Mario. "Blood monitoring in anti-doping setting." Recent advances in doping analysis: Sport und Buch Strauss. Edition Sport, Koln (2005): 255-264.
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