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Transcript of The Iliad
Earliest known written work of European Literature
8th century BC - Papyrus scrolls
Links oral and written tradition- inherited oral epic stories
Epic Poem - was memorized and sung before being written down
Nothing certain known about him
Rumors: Blind? Illiterate? African? Real?
It doesn't matter!!!
Epic Poetry: How does oral tradition become written tradition?
Most likely, there were many poets who sang the stories that make up The Iliad. They had special ways to remember the stories:
Dactylic Hexameter: the meter used in Epic Greek Poems
1 long syllable + 2 short syllables
Hexameter: 6 Meters
Each verse has 6 dactyls
Important note: This meter was flexible! Only used when it helped the poet remember certain parts of the story.
The Epic-ness of The Iliad
2 books define Western Culture: The Bible & The Iliad
The most famous work of fiction EVER WRITTEN
The basis and model for every: war story, action movie, comic book, & quest saga
Philosophy: Not simply good v. bad.
Deep moral, ethical questions about humanity
A Little Background:
EPIC POETRY: A long, narrative poem that details the story of an epic hero, who embodies the values of the society
Typically include philosophical ideas of humanity
EPIC HERO: A larger than life person who embodies the highest ideals of his or her culture
Goes on a quest
Achieve a type of immortality
Regular person, but often with god-like qualities
Flaws / Humanness
Why do we start wars? Why do we fight in them? Why do we end them?
Fate v. Free Will: Which force drives our lives?
The Epic Hero Cycle: Why is this archetypal character so central to literature?
How do both love and suffering define, and unite, humanity?
What makes a good leader? What makes a bad leader?
How are gender roles, norms, and expectations defined by the literature?
How (and why) did Ancient Greek culture interpret the influence of the Gods?
Why does The Iliad act as the foundation of Western Literature, and culture?
1. Above the map, draw a mountain. Title it “Mount Olympus.” List the name of the Greek Gods who were introduced in the myths.
2. Circle the home of Achilles. Above it, write the name of his peoples.
3. Star the home of Agamemnon.
4. Put an X over the location of Iphigenia’s sacrifice.
5. Put a heart on the original home of Helen. Draw an arrow that illustrate Helen’s move, and put a heart and #2 on her new home.
6. Highlight the geographic location of the Trojan War.
7. Draw three arrows starting at the site where the Greek ships set sail, and connect them to the area where they began the Trojan War.
Myth of the Apple of Discord
Myth of the sacrifice of Iphigenia
How do we feel about Helen? What about Paris?
How about these Gods?
TERMS: Invocation, In Medias Ras, Epithet
INVOCATION: From the Latin word meaning "To summon," invocation, a convention of classical literature and of epics in particular, in which an appeal for aid (especially for inspiration) is made to a muse or deity, usually at or near the beginning of the work.
IN MEDIAS RAS: ( Latin: “in the midst of things”) in narrative technique, the recommended practice of beginning an epic or other fictional form by plunging into a crucial situation that is part of a related chain of events; the situation is an extension of previous events and will be developed in later action. The narrative then goes directly forward, and exposition of earlier events is supplied by flashbacks.
EPITHET: A short, poetic nickname--often in the form of an adjective or adjectival phrase--attached to the normal name. Frequently, this technique allows a poet to extend a line by a few syllables in a poetic manner that characterizes an individual or a setting within an epic poem.
The Homeric epithet in classical literature often includes compounds of two words such as, "fleet-footed Achilles," "Cow-eyed Hera," "Grey-eyed Athena," or "the wine-dark sea." In other cases, it appears as a phrase, such as "Odysseus the man-of-many-wiles," or whatnot.
Invocation of the Muse
In Medias Ras: 10th year of the Trojan war - Achilles is in a fight with Agamemnon
Achaians: Achilles, Agamemnon, Menalaus
Trojans: Chryses, Chrysies
Problem: Plague on the Greeks because of Apollo
1. Who is the poet praying to and what does he want to know?
2. What does Chryses want from Agamemnon?
3. Who was the plague caused by and why?
4. What does Agamemnon want to take from Achilles?
5. What does Achilles ask his mother to do?
A formal and sustained simile. Like a regular simile, an epic simile makes a comparison between one object and another using “like” or “as.” Epic similes occur in the genre of Epics, and are developed at great length, often up to 50-100 lines.
When you find an epic simile:
Read through the passage. Identify the speaker and what is going on.
What is the comparison being made?
How does the epic simile help or hinder your visualization of the scene?
Check out lines 87-94 & 455-483 in Book 2 for an aggressively Epic Simile!
1. Who does Zeus send to Agamemnon in a dream?
2. Who does Athena send to keep the soldiers from leaving?
3. Why will the soldiers be arranged by city of origin?
4. Who does Agamemnon pray to for a successful battle?
5. What is the name of the tribe that Achilles leads?
1. Why does Hector make fun of Paris?
2. What are the terms of Paris's challenge?
3. Who tells Helen about Paris's challenge?
4. What is Priam called out to do on the battlefield?
5. How does Paris end up off of the battlefield and back in his bedroom?
6. What is deus ex machina? How do we see it in this book?
Deus ex machina: ( "god from the machine” – “God made it happen”)
is a plot device where a seemingly unsolvable problem is suddenly solved with the unexpected intervention of some new event, character, ability, or object.
In The Iliad, deus ex machina occurs when a God intervenes for a mortal they love/support/hate.
The Gods interfere immensely.
Menalaus v. Paris sends everyone into a tizzy
Who won? Was it fair that Aphrodite helped?
Zeus claims Menalaus as a winner, and promotes peace
Athena/Hera <3 Greece, but HATE Troy more. Want to see Troy destroyed.
So Athena effectively FRAMES Troy as truce-breakers by tricking a Trojan soldier to shoot at Menalaus in a non-fighting moment
1. Which of the gods is against peace between the Trojans and the Achaeans?
2. Which side breaks the truce?
3. Who does Agamemnon believe will punish the breakers of the truce?
4. Why does Agamemnon criticize Odysseus?
5. Why do the Achaeans march in silence?
EQ: Fate v. Free Will: Which force drives our lives?
Deus Ex Machina like whoaaaa
Diomedes is the focus. Athena gives him the power to SEE the Gods on the battle field. MISSION: Hurt Aphrodite
Mortals cannot kill Gods, but they can hurt them
Team Troy: Aphrodite, Ares, Hephaistos
Team Greece: Athena, Hera
1. To whom does Athena give extra power and courage?
2. Who hits Diomedes in the shoulder with an arrow?
3. What is special about Diomedes's eyes?
4. Who does Aphrodite save and why?
5. Who spears Ares in the gut?
Menalaus v. Agamemnon - Mercy?: 37-65
Gods: Trojans sacrifice to Athena - they are terrified of Diomedes
Women must perform the sacrifice
Glaukos (T) v. Diomedes (G)
Peace: Xenia - Guest Friendship (224-226/232-236)
Wives of Troy: 237-241
Athena and Trojan Women: 311
Helen & Paris: 321-339
Helen's speech: 344 - 353
Helen & Hektor: 354 - 364
Hektor looks for Andromache: 365- 375
And. went to the gates (v. Helen/other women?!)
Hektor/Andromache = ! (404-446)
Why Hektor fights: (447- 465)
Hektor & Astynax: (466-481)
Andromache disobeys Hektor: (490-502)
1. Why doesn't Menelaus spare Adrestus?
2. What message does Helenus give Hector?
3. Why does the King of Lykia ask Bellerophon to marry his daughter?
4. What does Helen wish?
5. What happened to Andromache's father, brothers, and mother?
What makes a good leader? What makes a bad leader?
How are gender roles, norms, and expectations defined by the literature?
What side of the war are you on?
What side is Homer on?
- CORRECT YOUR ANSWERS & THEN FIND THE PROPER LINES FOR WHERE THE ANSWERS CAN BE FOUND -
Gods continue to control the war - want to slow it down for the day
Hektor's strength revealed: No Achaians want to fight him 1-1!
Hektor v. Aias/Ajax: Fight to the death. Winner gets the armor of the dead man, but must return his body for proper burial (Greek cultural importance!)
Fight is halted: Zeus doesn't want either man dead. Instead, they trade armor.
Trojan peace treaty is rejected.
Proper burial occurs for all of the Trojan /Greek soldiers on the beaches of Troy.
1. How does Apollo suggest the fighting be ended for the day?
Apollo suggests that Hector challenge one of the Achaeans to a one-on-one fight.
2. Where is Hector wounded and by what?
Hector is wounded in the neck by Aias/Ajax's spear.
3. What gifts do Hector and Aias/Ajax exchange?
Hector gives Ajax his sword, and Ajax gives Hector his belt.
4. What message does Priam send to the Achaeans?
Priam tells them that Paris will give back all the jewels that he took along with Helen, but not Helen, and he asks for safe passage for the Trojans to recover their dead and give them a proper burial.
5. Which god is angry that no sacrifice was made to him?
Trojans and Greeks fight again
Zeus forbids gods from interfering, but decides to get involved and hurt the Greeks
Diomedes v. Hector - chariot fight. Diomedes must turn back to the ships.
Trojans pin the Greeks against their ships
Zeus says he will hurt the Greeks until Achilles returns
Hector prepares the Trojans to attack the next day
1. What does Nestor suggest to Agamemnon?
2. Which warriors does Nestor choose to deliver Agamemnon's offer?
3. What two paths does Achilles's mother tell him his life can take. Which does he choose initially?
4. What did Meleagros's mother do to him?
5. What does Achilles say it would take for him to start fighting?
The Greeks are losing! Must get back Achilles!
89-211: Greek leaders go to Agamemnon's ship for a meeting (and FEAST)
260-282: Make an offer to Achilles
300-306: 3 other motivating reasons for Achilles to fight
307-349: Achilles' answer
(Phoinix gives a lecture)
617-619: Achilles is partially swayed
620-632: Achilles' ego!!!
643-668: Achilles makes a deal - "I will fight if..."
Greeks doubt Achilles, go back and get ready to fight.
1. Long narrative poem that tells the story of a hero who embodies the values of a particular society
2. The hero is a great leader who is identified strongly with a particular group of people or society
3. The setting is broad and often includes supernatural realms
4. The hero performs amazing deeds in battle, or goes on an extraordinary quest
5. Gods or supernatural beings get involved
6. The story is told in heightened language
1. Invocation: a plea for aid
2. Starts in medias ras
3. Flashbacks present former events
4. Epic Similes
Larger than life person who embodies the ideals of his/her culture
Takes on a quest to achieve greatness
Achieve immortality in some way
Display some very human, relatable traits
Overcome great obstacles, while maintaining humanity
Feels normal human emotions, but can master/control them
... 10-13: Trojans DOMINATE. Achilles cries and writes songs in his ship with Patroklos
1. Whom does Nestor find sitting away from the battle and why?
2. What is Hera worried about?
3. What does Hera borrow from Aphrodite?
4. What story does Hera tell Aphrodite and Zeus?
5. What does Hera promise Sleep?
Book 15 Summary:
• Greeks are doing better - Trojans are driven back
• Zeus wakes up, and tries to help Trojans
• Nestor and Patroklos talk
• Hector breaks through the the Greek ships
1. What condition does Achilles impose on Patroclus using his armor?
2. Which piece of Achilles's armor does Patroclus leave behind and why?
3. Whom does Zeus want permission from Hera to save?
4. Who stops Patroclus from breaching Troy?
5. Who kills Patroclus?
Relationship with Achilles
Acts of HONOR
1. What prophecy did Achilles's mother tell him?
2. What does Achilles pour on himself when he hears about Patroclus?
3. How does Homer describe Achilles's loud cries?
4. What is the only thing that will restore Achilles's will to live?
5. Who protects Achilles when he goes to retrieve Patroclus's body?
1. How does Thetis keep Patroclus's body from disintegrating?
2. At the hands of which goddess has Zeus suffered?
3. What does Agamemnon promise Achilles?
4. What does Achilles refuse to do and why?
5. What does Zeus ask Athena to give Achilles and why?
– Zeus invites the Gods to rejoin the battle
– Achilles kills 14 Trojans
– Achilles kills Hector’s youngest brother
– Achilles kills 10 Trojans
– Trojans run back toward their city
– Achilles fights in 2 duels
– The Gods fight each other in Olympus
• 3 speeches (25-130)
– Priam (25-75)
– Hekabe (77-89)
– Hector (90-130)
• Chase (131-246)
– 208-223: Scales of Fate
– 224-246: Athena intervenes
• Fight (247-404)
– 250-273: Hector and Achilles disagree on
– 273—323: Battle
– 324-329: Achilles strikes Hector
– 330-360: Hector’s dying words
– 361-404: Achilles and Hector’s dead body
• 3 speeches (405-515)
– Priam (410-428)
– Hekabe (429-436)
– Andromache (437-end)
1. What does Priam predict about Troy?
2. What does Hector briefly consider doing with Achilles?
3. How many times does Hector run around the walls of Troy?
4. Why won't Achilles make pact with Hector?
5. What does Achilles do with Hector's body after he kills him?
23: The Greeks mourn Patroklos
Have a big feast
Pat's ghost visits: Wants to feed Hektor's body to the dogs, but Aphrodite and Apollo protect H's body
Pat's ghost: "Burn me asap, but keep my ashes. When Achilles dies, mingle our ashes together."
Greeks host funeral games/competitions.
1. What does Achilles do with Hector's body?
2. Who tells Achilles to give Hector's body to Priam?
3. What does Hector's mom wish she could do to Achilles?
4. What story does Achilles tell when he is eating with Priam?
5. How many days do the Trojans mourn Hector?
What do we think of Achilles? What about Agamemnon?
She brushed it away from his skin as lightly as when a mother brushes a fly away from her child who is lying in sweet sleep
what's being compared?
For fun Halloween prizes!
Work with your group to go back through the text and find EVERY epic simile and epithet you can, the group that finds the most in 10 minutes wins! Write them down!
Create an Epithet for your own name, consider what you like to do, who your family is and what you are known for
Ms. Ettefagh, best of the best
The freckled Ms. Ettefagh
Ms. Ettefagh, pride of PC