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Transcript of Cherokee timeline
White organization: group of elders, hereditary or priestly, responsible for religious practices, ex. Healing, purification and prayer
Red organization: young men responsible for warfare. They needed to be “purified” after fighting by the religious leaders.
Children contributed to regular household work. Girls were instructed by the oldest female on the mother’s side. Polygamy was common. Older women were often consulted, and their wisdom was highly valued. Boy participated in many competitions, mostly sports, to teach strength and courage. Children were raised through example, and were disciplined with words and lessons. Disputed between prehistoric times-1200s First encounter with foreigners. Hernando de Soto led Spaniards through Cherokee country. De Soto thought the Cherokees were actually part of the Coosa First Nation, and moved on without much communication with the Cherokees. Little did he know, he brought Spanish diseases with him with decimated the Cherokees and other First Nations. 1540 Spanish Juan Pardo led an expedition through Cherokee country. They visited some Cherokee towns but had no impact on society, and decided to leave. 1567: English settlers in Virginia kicked the Powhatan First Nation out of their home territory. Cherokees move into their abandoned land. The English tried to kick the Cherokees off the land, which resulted in a battle. The Cherokees won, but later moved away. 1654 Englishmen James Needham and Garbriel Arthur tried to form a trade connection with the Cherokees. Needham was killed after getting into an argument with Cherokee “Indian John”. Arthur, who as disguised as a Cherokee, learned the Cherokee language. 1673 1674 The Cherokee chief discovered that Arthur was actually an Englishman in disguise. He led the man back to the English settlements in Virginia, but agreed to let trade begin between the two societies. heavy trade between the English and Cherokees. In exchange for deerskins, the Cherokees received iron and steel tools (ex. Cookware), firearms, gunpowder, ammunition and alcohol. These changed Cherokee way of life, making tasks and warfare easier. Cherokees started creating townships. late 1600s Governor James Moore of South Carolina began Indian slave trade. Men would take Cherokees captive and sell them for labour, giving a portion of profits to the governor. Moore said that Englishmen were to "set upon, assault, kill, destroy, and take captive as many Indians as possible". Traders complained that they were losing money because they couldn’t find Aboriginals to trade with. Moore died a year later, but while alive, had caused the capture of 4000 Aboriginals. 1705 1710-1715 1716 Cherokees fought alongside the British in the Tuscarora War. The two groups became military allies, and had a strong relationship. The Cherokees adopted European war strategies and equipment. Cherokees fight alongside European South Carolina settlers against other First Nations after Creek Aboriginals murdered some Cherokee leaders. The Cherokees feel animosity to other Aboriginals, and prefer the new European settlers. Sir Alexander Cumming tricks the Cherokees into appointing Moytoy of Tellico as their “Emperor”. Moytoy decides to hand crown over of King George III of Britain. Cumming altered the Cherokee form of government, adding a supreme leader to the ranks. The position of “Emperor” was abolished after Moytoy’s death. However, political power began to decentralize after this, and separate Cherokee towns managed on their own. 1730 European smallpox attacks the Cherokees, causing thousands of deaths. Deformities created by the illness resulted in hundreds of Cherokee suicides. 1738: Cherokees and Shawnees attacked European settlers. Europeans retaliate by destroying over fifty Cherokee towns. 1830: Arguments between the English and Cherokee while fighting against the French and Aboriginals. The Anglo-Cherokee War begins. This ends in 1963, when King George III forbade Englishmen from settling near Cherokee territory. Feelings are harsh between the two societies. 1760: 1776: Cherokees were forced Westward by U.S. government officials. The areas they were removed from were mostly farmland, where they used European farming practices. Chief John Ross led a group of Cherokees to explain their need for Native Sovereignty to the Supreme Court. The Court declared that the Cherokees were under federal protection of the United States, but still forcibly moved 17 000 Cherokees eight years later in a voyage the Aboriginals would later call the Trail of Tears. Once west, they began to rebuild communities. 1788: Cherokees formed a new type of European-styled government, with a Principal chief and a capital town. Mid 1800s: Cherokees made new laws to accustom the new but common marriages between Europeans and Cherokees. Polygamy was abolished. Late 1800s Cherokees faced segregation, considered “coloured people”. They could not regain their rights until the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. 2000s Many Cherokees had married Europeans and assimilated into American society. Other Cherokees use a tribal democratic government, and occupy fourteen counties, where they have courts, schools, hospitals, businesses, police, entertainment and a newspaper. Cherokees by Aashna Kumar Bibliography Logan, Charles R. "The Promised Land: The Cherokees, Arkansas, and Removal, 1794–1839." Arkansas Historic Preservation Program, 1997. PDF. "Important Dates in Cherokee History." Cherokee History. PowerSource. Web. 08 July 2011. <http://www.powersource.com/nation/dates.html>. Martin, Ken. "Cherokee History." Cherokees. Tsalagi, 28 Feb. 1996. Web. 08 July 2011. <http://tolatsga.org/Cherokee1.html>. Henderson, Carol. "Cherokee Culture - History." Manataka American Indian Council. Web. 08 July 2011. <http://www.manataka.org/page1969.html>.