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The Ocean

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by

Shanny Chen

on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of The Ocean

Fukushima Nuclear Disaster 11 March 2011
caused by the earthquake and tsunami
4 out of 6 reactors were damaged
1250 times safe level in ocean
contaminated water was dumped into the sea Threat to the environment and human health creates unbalance in the food chain
sea water becomes radioactive
damages leukocytes in human bodies
higher possibility to get cancer
causes species mutation Oil
Dumping
Sewage
Air Pollution
Agricultural Runoff
Sunscreen Background photo by t.shigesa Case Study 2 The Ecosystem Case Study 1 The Oceans The Trash Vortex A.k.a. The North Pacific Gyre
Ocean currents
Twice the size of Texas
6 kilos of plastic for every kilo of natural plankton
Slow degrading plastic swirls around slowly choked with dead fish, marine mammals and birds. Actions Taken: usage of chemical agent injections
nitrogen -> explosions
sodium-silicate -> stop radioactive water
get help from Russia -> a ship Ocean Pollutions Six Types of Ocean Pollutions Oil Spill
Accidental leaks
greatest source: People pour oils and grease down the sink drains Plastic bottles
Trash from ships
Industrial wastes
Toxic chemicals Waste water from toilets and other household activities
Bring disease into ocean and marine animals Inextricably linked
Pollutions in air transfer into acid rain
It falls into the ocean and mingles with ocean water Evita Wang
Lindsay Liu
Frank Mo
Shanny Chen
Nicole Yeung Pesticides and fertilizers into smaller water sources
They carny those toxic chemicals into the ocean
Runoff from Midwestern farms into the Mississippi River is responsible for the "Dead Zone" in the Gulf of Mexico, which features very little marine life lesser known source of pollution,
>> can have grave effects
chemicals in sunscreen :
washes off into the ocean water
coats plant-life on coral reefs and suffocates them Actions Taken: Marine Ecosystem Reduce, reuse, recycle
charge for plastic bags
tap water

Kaisei -> cleanup initiative
+ Covanta -> renewable energy company = solutions to waste management
The SEAPLEX expedition Species Affected Over 1 million sea-birds
Over 100,000 marine mammals and sea turtles Activity
Time~ Show what you learn !
Best team will be rewarded :) Threat to Environment Chemical sponges : some plastics can concentrate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like PCBs and DDTs
Many animals eating these plastics take in highly toxic pollutants
Ocean hitchhikers : floating plastic become surface for organisms to live on. Leads to invasive species.
Around 70% of plastic debris sink to bottom killing marine life and smothering sea bottom
Plastics degrade and leach PCBs, bisphenol A, etc.. Impact on humans The fish we eat may be affected by toxins
Sea life are endangered by these plastics therefore less food
Trash can be washed onto shore
Toxins can leach into soil and ground water - Oceans and seas:
cover 72% of Earth's surface
> provides unique habitats for different
organisms
- 300,000 marine species known
= 15 % of all species Costs & Solutions clear radioactive soil around Fukushima
evacuate residents to safe areas
scrap damaged reactors
reduce the volume of radioactive elements in the ocean.
US$250 billion Marine Food Web Producer: Phytoplankton
= tiny plants e.g. algae
>> consumed by Primary Consumer: Zooplankton
= tiny floating animals
>> consumed by Secondary Consumers
= small animals e.g. shrimps, small fish
>> consumed by Top Predators
= larger or faster fish and animals e.g. sharks, seabirds

- Network of food chains
= Food Web
>> Energy transfer Functions 1. Source of Food
2. Source of Minerals
3. Source of Energy
4. Trade and shipping
5. Recreation Dumping Sewage Air Pollution Agricultural Runoff Oil Sunscreen Based on the following terms and what you have learned, please draw and describe the marine food web and ecosystem before and after the occurrence of the hinted human activity.
Then, discuss and tell us why is it difficult to protect the ecosystem.
i.e. What are the barriers to the solutions of this human activity?
Full transcript