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New Technology for Harvesting :microalgae biomass

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noor ahmed

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of New Technology for Harvesting :microalgae biomass

New Technology for Harvesting microalgae biomass

New Technology for Harvesting microalgae biomass
Thesis Submitted by
Nada Adel M.Elgiddawy

Under the Supervision of
Assoc.Prof. Dr.


Tamer Essam
Professor of Biotechnology,
Faculty of post-graduate studies
Beni-Suef University

Dr. Dr.

Mai Mohamed Hasan Raslan

Waleed Mohamed Elrouby




Lecturer of Biotechnology, Lecturer of nanotechnology,
Faculty of Post-graduate studies, Faculty of Post-graduate studies,
Beni-Suef University. Beni-Suef University


What is Algae
- Algae are a large and successful group of eukaryote organisms, which flourish in sea, in fresh water, in damp place in the earth.

- Most algae contain chlorophyll and can
produce food from the sun.

- They have been classified in a separate
kingdom called Protista .





Algae are very very simple to culture,
only require sunlight, CO2 , and simple
minerals.










They have high real productivity,
a relatively high oil & protein content
so they serve as potential source of
biofuel & bulk proteins.










Other industrial uses of algae biomass:

1. methane production
2. fertilizer
3. production of new “pharmaceuticals”






Marine algae possess a variety of
biological activities that se
potential application as
pharmaceuticals
:
antioxidant
Antimicrobial
anticancer
anti-diabetic
anti-thrombotic effects
due to presecne of various
Bromophenols





History of the commercial use
of algal cultures

- Wastewater is mainly treated by aerobic or
anaerobic biological degradation; however, the
treated water still contains inorganic compounds
such as nitrate, ammonium and phosphate ions.

- Microalgal cultures offer an elegant solution due to the
ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and
phosphorous for their growth and their capacity to
remove heavy metals.

- The bio-treatment of wastewater with
algae
to
remove nutrients such as nitrogen and
phosphorus and to provide oxygen for
aerobic bacteria was proposed
over
50 years ago.















SO
or this reason,
wastewater
is an
attractive resource for
algae production.

However, major challenge is the
“harvesting of microalgae”
in a way that allows for downstream processing to produce biofuels and other bioproducts of high value.









Methods of harvesting

1- Centrifugation :
is perhaps the
most rapid and reliable method of
recovering suspended algae.


Disadvantage :
not cheap nor especially
economical (imagine how long it would take
to centrifuge large amounts of water) to
use “energy-intensive”. 


























2- Filtration :
Algae can be filtered out by applying
pressure to a mass of water, forcing it to pass through
a filtering membrane leaving behind the algae.










Disadvantage :
to wait a long time or provide
a means of pressure.



3- Flocculation :
Single cells
form larger aggregates that can be Separated by simple gravity sedimentation.




3- Flocculation :
Single cells form
larger aggregates that can be Separated
by simple gravity sedimentation.










Flocculation
is seen as a promising
low-cost harvesting
method.






3a- Chemical Flocculation :
Electrolytes
and synthetic polymers are added to
(neutralize charge) and flocculate the cells.

Disadvantage :
removing the chemical later may prove
challenging and may add additional cost.


3b- Auto-flocculation :
When the CO2 supply is interupted
(closed-system only), pH increased, the algae will flocculate on its
own.

Disadvantage :
efficiency of this method will not be high.



3c- Physical flocculation :
Separation methods based on
electrophoresis of the algae cells . Because of the negative charge
of algae cells, they can be concentrated by movement in an
electric field .

Disadvantage :
difficult to apply on larger scales.














Aim of the work


Use new technology
LDH
“layered doubled hydroxide”
as flocculating
agent for microalgae


Layered Doubled Hydroxide





- LDH are heterostructured materials composed of

“two-dimensional” inorganic host and intercalating
inorganic-, organic-, bio-, or polymer guests.








LDHs in Biology and Medicine

Powdered LDHs have demonstrated to be one type of important and
green carrier
or
host for genes
and drugs due to the excellent biocompatibility and nontoxicity or low toxicity.
Comprehensive investigations have been performed on the toxicity of LDH nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo in practical biological applications .
MgAl-LDH is used as an important component of drugs, or as nanocarriers for delivery of drug and genes into cells .












- Recently reported an efficient LDH-based
delivery for siRNA to mammalian cells in vitro.


- Demonstrated that LDH was able to be used as an
effective nanocarrier by greatly enhancing the thermal-
and photo-stabilities for L-Dopa and L-Tyrosine , which
are both unstable agents in storage or transport.

- Adsorption properties of LDH toward pseudomonas
sp. Were evaluated.






Plan of work


1) Screening and isolation
of selected
fresh water algae from the Nile river bank.

2) Cultivation
of algae in lab-scale
photobioreactor.

3) Preparation
of Layered Doubled Hydroxide

4) Characterization
of nanomaterial by XRD
and TEM.

5) Flocculation
of microalgae using
repared LDH.

6) Study
the mechanism of
flocculation by TEM
images.









Thank You
Full transcript