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AP Bio- Interactions 2: Reproduction

2 of 6 of my Interactions Domain. Image Credits: Biology (Campbell) 9th edition, copyright Pearson 2011, & The Internet.Provided under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. By David Knuffke.

David Knuffke

on 11 January 2015

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Transcript of AP Bio- Interactions 2: Reproduction

General Points
Two Major Modes:
(mitosis, binary fission, etc.)
(n + n = 2n)
We'll mostly focus on sexual here.
The "Sexual Handicap"...So why do it?
Brief Review of Sexual Life Cycles
Mostly n, occasionally 2n
Mostly 2n, occasionally n
"Alternation of generations"
Actually, This is a bit more typical for fungi:
You are familiar with the reproductive structures of mushrooms (which is, to say, the "mushroom")
fruiting bodies producing spores!
General Fungal Life Cycle
Actual Fungal Life Cycle Examples
Oyster Mushroom (a basidiomycete or "club fungus")
, the Black Bread Mold (a zygomycete)
Why wouldn't you want more of us?
Because everyone knows there's a little dude inside every sperm cell.
Sexual Reproduction in Sea Slugs
Asexual Reproduction in Anemones
in Lizards
(sexual behavior still required!)
Many "Options"
Internal vs. External Fertilization
How Much Parental Care?
Human Reproductive Systems
Need to know all structures and functions
Hundreds of millions/day
Begins at puberty
Ends at Death (viability does decrease in old age)
produces 4 mature sperm cells
Hormonal control of sperm production
Begins at puberty
Ends at menopause (why?)
produces 1 mature ovum & 2
polar bodies
Hormonal control of ovum production
Asexual Reproduction in Aspen Trees
Sexual Reproduction in orchids
Evolutionary Trends in Plant Reproduction
Many plants reproduce asexually with ease
Most plants require pollination for sexual reproduction
Evolutionary history
Sexual life cycle of a gymnosperm
Sexual life cycle of an angiosperm
Floral anatomy
Angiosperm gamete production
Pollinator Adaptations
More Pollinator Adaptations
Mechanisms to prevent self-pollination
"Double Fertilization"
Seed Development
Fruit Development
Seed Dispersal mechanisms
Monocots vs. Dicots
Fun with Plant Reproduction
Big Questions:
Make Sure You Can:
How are the reproductive systems of multicellular organisms adapted for sexual reproduction?

How do the constraints of the environment determine the adaptations in organismal reproductive systems?

How are the reproductive systems of animals and plants similar? How are the different?
Compare sexual reproduction in fungi, animals, and plants.

Label all parts of the male and female reproductive systems and explain how they contribute to the functions of the systems.

Label all parts of a typical flower and explain how they contribute to sexual reproduction.

Demonstrate how reproductive technologies might have moral and ethical implications for society

Explain the causes of reproductive system disruptions and how disruptions of the reproductive system can lead to disruptions of homeostasis.

Explain how plant breeding technologies take advantage of the reproductive strategies of particular plants.
Stem Cells
Any Questions?
Various techniques have been developed to produce genetically identical offspring of parents.

These techniques have been used in all animal lineages

The clone is not completely identical to the parent (why?)

Legal restrictions prevent the reproductive cloning of humans in most of the world.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
The process used to create
Dolly & CC (the first cloned cat!)
Stem cells are the regenerative cell populations in the body.

Different types vary in their degree of "

At current, embryonic stem (ES) cells are the most potent.

Various therapies are in clinical trials, but none are widely available yet.
An "idealized"
Many angiosperms produce
fuse with one pollen sperm to make triploid (3n)
tissue for seed (food source)
fuse with other pollen sperm to make diploid
Creates the
pollen tube
to deliver 2 sperm (from generative cell) to ovule
What separates "sperm" from "egg"?
size & motility (that's it!)
structure & function!
a. dioecious plants have "male" and "female" flowers.

b. arrangement of styles and stamens can prevent self-fertilization (or at least minimize its chances)
Could there be other mechanisms? Examples?
What gets fertilized, and why?
Note: Plant Sex is analogous to Animal Sex (NOT HOMOLOGOUS!!!)
Why seeds?
Why fruit?
What are some of the differences in
Learn These!!!

One Cotyledon
Grasses, mostly

Two Cotyledons
All other Angiosperms
Artificial Selection: Teosinte vs. Maize
Cloning of Plants is so easy!!!
Full transcript