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5th Grade Human Body Systems

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on 16 January 2015

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Transcript of 5th Grade Human Body Systems

Mrs. Lumley
The Circulatory System
also known as
The Cardiovascular System
Major Function-The circulatory system is responsible for sending (pumping) blood through the body, delivering oxygen and other nutrients to all of our cells and removing waste that can be found in the blood
The Digestive System
The Muscular System
The Nervous System
The Respiratory System
The Skeletal System
Major Organs- heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries)
Major Function-The digestive system is responsible for breaking down the food that we eat into smaller parts so the body can use them to build and nourish cells and provide energy.
Major Organs- mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines,
Major Organs- tendons, ligaments, and muscles; smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and voluntary muscles
Major Function-The muscular system is responsible for all of the movements of the human body; both voluntary and involuntary movements
Major Function-The nervous system is responsible for working as the control center of the body, monitoring conditions within and outside the body and sending out electrical signals to respond to them.
Major Function-The respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into your body, and removing the carbon dioxide from your body (responsible for gas exchange); it is responsible for delivering oxygen to the circulatory system. It controls breathing.
Major Function-The skeletal system is responsible for providing support for the body; the bones provide support for tissues and muscle; protection for vital organs; movement through bones and attached muscles; and Storage for minerals and immature blood cells; and creating red blood cells in bone marrow
Major Organs- brain, spinal cord, nerves
Major Organs- nose, trachea, lungs
Major Organs- bones; there are 5 main classifications of bones: Long, Short, Flat, Irregular, and Sesamoid
The key to body Systems is that they must work together with the other systems to support life! But, how?
Crohn’s disease- a disease of the digestive system that causes inflammation, or swelling, and irritation of any part of the digestive tract

Lactose intolerance- is the inability to digest lactose properly, (a sugar found in milk and milk products.) This is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, which is produced by the cells lining the small intestine
Bronchitis- an inflammation of the membranes that line the bronchi or bronchioles. Bronchitis results from viral or bacterial infection or from irritating chemicals.

Pneumonia- a potentially serious condition of the lungs in which fluid and inflammation builds up in the alveoli, impeding (stopping/slowing) the flow of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the capillaries and the alveoli
Diseases/Conditions of the Digestive System
Diseases/Conditions of the Respiratory System
Diseases/Conditions of the Muscular System
Diseases/Conditions of the Skeletal System
Diseases/Conditions of the Nervous System
Diseases/Conditions of the Circulatory System
Concussions- The brain is made of soft tissue and is cushioned by spinal fluid. It is encased in the hard, protective skull. When a person gets a head injury, the brain can move around inside the skull and even bang against it. This can lead to bruising of the brain, tearing of blood vessels, and injury to the nerves. When this happens, a person can get a concussion — a temporary loss of normal brain function

Cerebral palsy (CP for short) is a disorder of the brain. Normally, the brain tells the rest of the body exactly what to do and when to do it. Because of how CP affects the brain, a person might not be able to walk, talk, eat, or move the way most people do. CP affects a person's ability to coordinate body movements. People with CP have trouble controlling their muscles.

Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)-Lou Gehrig's disease causes motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord to shrink and disappear, so that the muscles no longer receive signals to move. As a result, the muscles become smaller and weaker. Gradually the body becomes paralyzed, which means that the muscles no longer work.
Coronary artery disease. The most common heart disorder in adults, coronary artery disease is caused by atherosclerosis. Deposits of fat, calcium, and dead cells, called atherosclerotic plaques, form on the inner walls of the coronary arteries (the blood vessels that supply the heart) and interfere with the smooth flow of blood.

Stroke- Strokes occur when the blood supply to the brain is cut off or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and spills blood into an area of the brain, causing damage to brain cells

Arrhythmia-Cardiac arrhythmias, also called dysrhythmias or rhythm disorders, are problems in the rhythm of the heartbeat. They may be caused by a congenital heart defect or they may be acquired later. An arrhythmia may cause the heart's rhythm to be irregular, abnormally fast, or abnormally slow
Spina bifida is a spinal defect that is present at birth. In spina bifida, the spinal cord does not form properly and the vertebrae and skin cannot form around it.

Osteoporosis is a disease resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, the cancellous bone loses calcium, becomes thinner, and may disappear altogether.

Leukemia -The cause of most human leukemia is unknown. It is a kind of cancer of the blood or bone marrow (which produces blood cells) in which abnormal white blood cells multiply in an uncontrolled manner. They interfere with the production of normal white blood cells. Leukemia affects the production of red blood cells.
Muscular Dystrophy—a hereditary disease characterized by progressive wasting of the muscles. It makes muscle fibers abnormally susceptible to damage. Most types of muscular dystrophy are caused by the deficiency of a protein known as dystrophin.

Fibromyalgia results in widespread pain throughout every muscle in a person's body. Approximately 2% of the entire US population is affected by fibromyalgia. Symptoms of fibromyalgia include joint tenderness, fatigue problems, and sleep disturbances.
The respiratory system delivers oxygen
to the circulatory system.

The muscular system and skeletal system are responsible for working together, helping control the movement of the body.

The nervous system is responsible for telling your muscles (muscular system) how and when to move.

The digestive system is responsible for breaking down the foods we eat so that the circulatory system can transport the nutrients and other things throughout the body.

The circulatory (cardiovascular) system transports oxygen the muscular system which is needed for energy.

Muscles move by expanding or contracting. When the muscle contracts, this pulls the bones it's connected to closer together. (Think about how your arm bones get closer together...the muscles they are connected to contract)
Many of our muscles come in pairs. An example of this is the biceps and triceps in our arms. When the biceps contract the triceps will relax, this allows our arm to bend. When we want to straighten our arm back out, the biceps will relax and the triceps will contract. Muscle pairs allow us to move back and forth.
The largest bone is the pelvis, or hip bone. In fact it is made of six bones joined firmly together.
- The longest bone is the 'femur', in the thigh. It makes up almost one quarter of the body's total height.
- The smallest bone is the 'stirrup', deep in the ear. It is hardly larger than a grain of rice.
- The ears and end of the nose do not have bones inside them. Their inner supports are cartilage or 'gristle', which is lighter and more flexible than bone. This is why the nose and ears can be bent.
- After death, cartilage rots faster than bone. This is why the skulls of skeletons have no nose or ears.
- Unlike other body cells, brain cells can not regenerate. Once brain cells are damaged they are not replaced.
- The brain and spinal cord are surrounded and protected by cerebrospinal fluid.
-the brain send signals to the nerves in order to communicate.
Working towards being healthy means you have to pay attention to the foods you eat, and
how different activities can
damage/ affect these body
systems. Fitness is
important in helping different body systems work correctly.
Arteries are usually
colored red and carry blood AWAY from the heart.
Veins are usually
colored blue and carry blood TO the heart.
-There are over 650 muscles in the human body
-Shivering is caused by hundreds of muscles expanding and contracting to produce heat and make us warmer.
-The strongest muscle is in our jaw and is used for chewing.
- There are about 60 muscles in the face. Smiling is easier than frowning. It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown. All the more reason to smile instead of frown! :)
- The longest muscle in the body is the sartorius, from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It rotates the thigh outwards and bends the knee.
- The smallest muscle in the body is the stapedius, deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing.
- The biggest muscle in the body is the gluteus maximus, in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking, running and climbing steps.
Capillaries move blood back and forth
between veins and arteries.
- the muscular system also contains ligaments and tendons
- ligaments connect bone to bone to create joints
-this will either allow or restrict movements in certain directions
-tendons connect muscle to bone
-this allows the bones to move when the muscles release or restrict
Excretory System
Main Function: The excretory system regulates the amount of water in your body and helps remove waste.
Major organs- sweat glands, liver, kidneys, ureter, bladder
- sweat glands release water to your skin to help your body from overheating
- releasing sweat will help cool your body down while doing strenuous activities
- the liver recycles parts of cells that are damaged or old, which puts a lot of nitrogen in your blood
- the liver also filters the nitrogen out of your blood creating urea
- the kidneys are bean shaped organs that filter out the urea in your blood
- they are made up of intricate tubes and pumps that regulate of much water is need in your blood
-the kidneys turn the left over amount of water into urine
-the ureters are tubes that flow from the kidneys to the bladder to transport the urine
-the bladder is a muscular bag that holds the urine
-once the bag is full it will send signals to your brain that it needs to be emptied by going to the restroom
-the mouth is where the food enters the body and starts the digestive process
-the food then goes through the throat to your esophagus
-the esophagus is made up of smooth muscles which moves your food toward your stomach
- the stomach breaks down the food with hydrochloric acids until it become a liquid called "chyme"

Urea
-the stomach releases into the small intestine
-the small intestine releases chemicals to break down the protein, fats, an carbohydrates.
-part of the nutrients of the chyme is absorbed into your body
-the large intestine removes the water from the nutrients and sends the rest of the waste to the excretory system
-the nose is the part of the body that helps you breathe
-it takes in air from outside and sends it to the trachea
-the trachea is a large tube that splits into two parts called bronchi
-the trachea send the air into the lungs

-the lungs are made up of small tubes called brochioles and small pouches called aveolies
-the brochioles send the air to the aveoli
-the aveoli is surrounded by capillaries
-as blood flows through the aveoli takes out the carbon dioxide and gives the blood oxygen
-the diaphragm is the muscle at the bottom of the chest
-as you inhale (breathe in) moves down
-as you exhale (breathe out) moves up
What are nerves?
Nerves send signals from different parts of your body to your brain
The cell is made up of Axon, dendrites, myelin sheath, cell body (soma), and nucleus
The dendrites are the input part. They recieve electrical signals from other nerves
The cell collects the signals and then sends out one big electrical output through the axon
The axon send the signal through to the axon terminals.
The terminals are connected to dendrites which receive the signal for the next nerve.
There is space between the axons and dendrites. This is called the synapses.
If the signal cannot go through the synapses to the next dendrite it is lost. ALL or NOTHING!
There are five different types of bones:
1) the long bone- it is longer than it is wide. example: bones that make up your legs, arms, and fingers
2) the short bone- it is roughly cube shaped. Example: wrist, ankle,and sesamoid bones
3) flat bones- bones that are thin, flat, and slightly curved. Example: bones in your skull and the sternum
4) irregular bones- are irregularly shaped and do not fit into the other categories. Example: hip bone, stirrup
5) sesamoid bones- are embedded in the tendons. they hold the tendon further away from the joint. Found where the tendons move over a joint. Example: the patella (which is in the knee), four in your hand, one in your foot.
Learning About the
Human Body Systems
In our body we have three different types of muscles: cardiac, skeletal, and smooth. The muscles are either voluntary or involuntary.

Voluntary muscles will only move when we want them to move. These types of muscles you have to train and workout to be able function.


Voluntary muscles will only move when we want them to move. These types of muscles you have to train and workout to be able function.

Example: Skeletal muscles

Involuntary muscles will work on their own. We do not have to think or try to make them move. They work even when we are asleep to help keep us alive.

Example: Cardiac and Smooth
Skeletal Muscles
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles. We have to make an effort for them to move.
These are the muscles that are connected to our bones. They relax and contract in pairs in order to make our arms, legs, fingers, neck, etc. move. These are made up of straight strips of muscle fiber lying side by side.
Smooth Muscles
Smooth muscles are involuntary. We do not have to think about using these. Smooth muscles make up the lining of our esophagus, intestines, lungs, and blood vessels. They are long and thin with points at either end.
Cardiac Muscles
Cardiac muscles are special involuntary muscles that only make up the heart. These muscles just like smooth muscles are continuously working. The muscles branch out and weave together.
The brain has multiple sections that control different things in your body.
Cerebrum controls your speech, movement, and ability to speak. This is the front of your brain and is larger in humans than other animals.

Cerebellum controls your coordination and balance. This helps you to walk in a straight line and not bump into things.

The hypothalamus is the post office of the brain. It sends messages to your body and controls the messages sent to your brain.

The brain stem is the relay highway for all of your body. The messages the hypothalamus sends are sent to each specific part through the spinal cord.
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