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Public Health in Hair and Beauty Salons - Making it Gel

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Jayne Jose

on 9 July 2014

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Transcript of Public Health in Hair and Beauty Salons - Making it Gel

Las Vegas,
Nevada, USA
Population: 2 Million

2 Million

Average Temperature:
105°F (41°C )


Population: 500 000

Average Temperature:
36 °F (2° C)
The Scope
Not many industries can boast a stake in every town around the world in quite the same way the hair and beauty industry can. Consider the sheer numbers of hair and beauty services available across the globe. Consider the public health attributes and infection potential of this industry.
Public Health of Hair and Beauty Salons:
Making it Gel
By Jayne Jose,
Environmental Health Officer
Meander Valley Council
A Challenge:
Education or Legislation?

You decide
What are the Risks?
What are the Risks?
Public health risks
from procedures:
• Bacterial
• Fungal
• Viral

Bacterial Infections
Viral Infections
Why is the salon a perfect environment for fungus growth?

e.g. manicures, pedicures, spas, facials, massages, waxing

· Damaged, dry or moist skin,
· Temperature changes
· pH imbalance
· Candida: Moist skin folds
Tinea pedis
: Walking barefoot on surfaces, sharing towels

Fungal Infections
Persistent, irritating, can lead to further complications but rarely life threatening
Staphylococcus spp,

Pseudomonas spp,

Streptococcus spp,


Hepatitis C,

Humanpapilloma virus,

Herpes simplex

Or all of the above...

Streptococcus pyogenes
Herpes simplex from Brazilian bikini waxing
Mycobacterium - A closer look
From soil, water and chlorinated, water supplies
Biofilm, protozoa
pH, temperature, nutrients
M. fortuitum
: persistent, infectious, slow healing, boil-like lesions
M chelonae
: Eye infections
Non-responsive to mainstream antibiotics,
4 - 6 months to heal
Infection numbers increasing
Eyelash/eyebrow treatments, facials, pedicure foot baths
• 100 cases of
M furunculosis
in California from a pedicure footbath

• Environmental sampling- screen behind suction inlets in foot baths highly contaminated with skin debris and hair

• Microbiological sampling - Rapidly growing
Mycobacterial spp

• Results- Statewide regulation changes (California Bureau of Barbering and Cosmetology)

et al
, 2003; Drage et al, 2009; Wertman et al, 2011)

- A Case Study
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
A closer look
Found in nail salons, creams, cleansing solutions, shampoo, make up
Known to cause:
Septicemia (contaminated hand cream)
Corneal ulceration of the eye, (mascara applicators)
Harm to infants
What are the risks?
What are the risks?
Who does it effect?
'Everyday' places
Less attractive people earn less than more attractive people (Schwer and Daneshvary, 2000)
Salons not selected for public health or hygiene
Importance of informed decisions for clients, without compromising health or safety

Who does it effect?
Who does it effect?
Occupational health and safety

Indiscriminate - healthy and unhealthy hosts
Immunocompromised individuals
Neonates, elderly and vulnerable
Young people
Women taking contraceptive pill (increased risk of fungal infection)
Females of childbearing age (majority of salon clients and workers)
Some organisms are opportunistic towards an immunocompromised host:

Staphylococcus spp,
Pseudomonas spp,
Streptococcus spp,
High risk of dermatitis (difficult to manage once dermatitis developed), wounds and scarring
Ergonomic risks:
Long periods standing,
Awkward posture positions,
Physical exertion,
Psychological stress
Increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes:
Preterm delivery,
Perinatal death,
Spontaneous abortion
Occupational health and safety:
Chemical exposure
Who does it effect?
Exposure to 9000+ chemicals
Solvent exposure (workers and clients)
Respiratory illness
Dermatitis risk
Indoor air quality: toluene, xylene, ester, ketones, formaldehyde, VOCs, CO2
Higher risk of allergies and chemical related illness
Occupational health and safety
Salon workers covered by Workplace Health and Safety Legislation, but...
Higher risk of allergic reactions if gloves are worn (especially smokers)
Negligence towards personal hygiene procedures, sharps-related injuries
Highlights need for conclusive regulations for clients and workers
Who does it effect?
Immunocompromised Individuals: A case study
Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) – costly extended hospital stays.

MRSA infection in patients hairline,
Traced to infected equipment in hospitals hairdresser
Importance of hygiene practices in preventing disease and infection

Where Does Hair and Beauty Legislation Exist?
Where Does Legislation Exist?
Group Discussion
Does your Country/ State have Legislation for hair and beauty salons?
If so, what does it say?
How is it applied?
Is it effective?
Why Doesn't Tasmania Have Legislation?
Literature (scholarly and otherwise) covers everything except public health
Low awareness of public health risks
Highlights necessity of education and public awareness
Barriers to Legislation
Barriers to Legislation
Other political/legislative priorities
Why Doesn't Tasmania Have Legislation?
How can we do something about it?
How can we do something about it?

How can we
make a

is it anyway?

Is the hair and beauty industry too sexy for public health?
Is lack of legislation sexist?
Something controversial...
Ongoing vigilance and good practice

How can we do something about it?

How can we do something about it?

Fact sheets
Information sessions
Course curriculum
How can we do something about it?

Town Planning
Building Regulations
Local Government By-Laws
Sexually Transmitted


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