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Copy of Khrushchev and the Cold War

History project on Nikita Khrushchev
by

Lisa Robinet

on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Khrushchev and the Cold War

Khrushchev So who was he really? Thank you for your attention! Khrushchev was a prolific leader who far exceeded what had been expected by his critics. He may have been stubborn and eccentric but he undeniably began a process of economic and political reform in the USSR. Eastern Europe
Germany
China
USA
Cuba
Domestic Economic and political actions Relationship with other countries Relationships in the Communist world Germany Cuba Eastern Europe Poland Hungary Improved relations with Yugoslavia Emigration from the East Berlin Crisis Economic Aid Cuban Missile Crisis A New Leader for a New Soviet Union The Communist East had a far lower quality of life than the West, resulting in escapes from one side to the other. This meant that the East would sink deeper into poverty as professionals were leaving the country at an alarming rate. In 1961, Khrushchev threatened to stop functioning in the Alliance formed with the Western Powers and instead work solely with the East Germans, likely to result in West Berlin becoming completely cut-off from the rest of West Germany. This was follwed by the complete separation of Berlin by the Soviet erected Berlin Wall. After the Communist Revolution, America withdrew all economic ties with Cuba. Russia stepped in, providing economic aid and purchasing the exports Cuba relied on. In order to guarantee the US would not be able to invade Cuba in the future, Khrushchev placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. This caused uproar and greater tension. Polish protests against the Soviets broke out, sparking liberalization. Khrushchev allowed these changes to occur so long as Poland and the USSR's relations remained the same. Inspired by Poland, Hungary decided to revolt. The new leader, Imre Nagy declared multi-party elections and a withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact. In response, the Soviets brutally crushed the uprising and executed its leaders. Yugoslavia's Marshall Tito had been unwilling to submit himself to Stalin as a part of the USSR, but ran a separate Communist state, resulting in a split between the two. Khrushchev reconciled the differences and greatly improved relations between the two states. The Warsaw Pact united the Communist States of Eastern Europe in a military and economic alliance (similar to NATO) China At the start of his reign, Khrushchev tried to support the newly Communist China However the two countries differed in their style of rule and Khrushchev's criticism of Stalin's cult of personality was seen as an attack of Chairman Mao's leadership as well. Khrushchev also advocated competition with the West while Mao advocated its destruction. The disputes that followed divided the rest of the Communist world into two camps Relationship with
the West The Cold War The Space Race Diplomatic interactions On his visit to the US, Khruschev met President Eisenhower and the two resolved to ensure better negotitations. In 1960, the Soviets shot down an American U2 Spy Plane that had been illegally spying in the USSR. Eisenhower refused to apologise for the incident and negotiations deteriorated. On an uninvited visit to the US, Khrushchev (the self-appointed ambassador to the UN) visited UN headquarters. It was there that the delegate from the Philipines accused the USSR of hypocrisy. Khrushchev demanded the right to reply and so proceeded to take off his shoe and bang it on the table for the duration of the other delegate's speech. This period was characterized not by direct war but the involvement of USA and the USSR in other conflicts around th world. Examples are: the Suez Crisis, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. One of the main competitions between the US and USSR was the space race. This was one of Khrushchev's greatest successes, as he beat the Americans in sending the first satellite to space (Sputnik) and the first person. This created the perception of a widening gap between the two countries. However, later on, the US would show its abilities by sending the first man to the moon. Peaceful coexistence: Khrushchev advocated a system, not of war, but of economic competition between capitalism and communism. Khrushchev's relationship with Kennedy was no improvement. At the Vienna Summit, both leaders had become frustrated over the lack of progress. While Kennedy had not succumbed to the USSR's pressure, he was idelogically destroyed by Khrushchev in debate. Agriculture Virgin Land Program
Reorganizatio of farm plots The Virgin Land program was Khrushchev’s attempt to raise agricultural output by cultivating 9,000 acres of unused land in Kazakhstan. This had success because the land had a few very large harvests but it also suffered many droughts. Khrushchev reorganized farm plots into larger plots thinking that the larger areas would greatly increase agricultural output. Unfortunately the larger plots of land were very unorganized and led to massive drops in production.
In Khrushchev’s time in office agricultural output dropped sharply causing food prices to soar. In the summer of 1962 the prices of butter and meat rose 25-30% and caused many riots.
Decentralization When Khrushchev found out that Gregory Malenkov, Nikolai Bulganin and a couple other of his serious political opponents were trying to remove him from office, he made a mini purge of the party either kicking out his opponents completely or sending them to places where they couldn’t oppose him. The difference, however, was that these leaders were not executed, making him starkly different from his predecessor. He removed the industrial council and replaced it with regional economic councils to help with local needs, however this decentralization of industry led to confusion and inefficiency.
To put greater importance on economics Khrushchev decided to recast the party’s organizations along economic lines instead of administrative ones. While in the quest for greater efficiency, this such as many of his other decisions led to disarray and split the party. This was a major reason for his eventual dismissal.
He reduced the size of the Soviet army even though it was the thick of the Cold War to try
lessen tension. Military Background Early years
Life with Stalin
Premiership Born April 15th, 1894 to a lower class family in the Kursk region Minimal schooling (only four years of education at the village school) Was a metal worker-which meant he was exempt from the military in WWI In 1918, the Civil War broke out and Khrushchev joined the Red Army. Many say that the reason he affiliated himself with the Bolsheviks so late was because he was thought to have secretly supported the Mensheviks, who prioritized economic progress over political progress. Interesting fact After the end of the war in 1921, Khrushchev returned, his wife having died of typhus while he was gone. At the funeral, Khrushchev refused to let the coffin enter the church, instead lifting it over the fence into the graveyard. Attended the Stalin Industrial Academy and began to work full-time for the Communist Party Highly supportive of Stalin and a defender of the purges

"Everyone who rejoices in the successes achieved in our country, the victories of our party led by the great Stalin, will find only one word suitable for the Trotskyite-Zinovievite gang. That word, is execution."

-Khrushchev In 1955, Khrushchev succeeded Stalin as Premier Ironically, he began the process of De-Stalinization almost immediately, delivering the "Secret Speech" aka "Cult of Personality" In this speech, he showed his support for the Leninist model but condemned Stalin's reign of terror Khrushchev ciriticized Stalin's cult of peronality style rule, upper member bureaucracy and his purges. With this, he consolidated public support Khrushchev
1. Actively discredited Stalin
2. Economically reformed the USSR
3. Released prisoners from the Gulags Different views about
Khrushchev Positive
Negative To Khrushchev reforms, there are two different views: One view is that the reform did not go beyond the Stalinist system, it’s only minor repairs, and thus the reform is a failure. Another view is that from the historical perspective, the Khrushchev reform is understandable. The following is a brief analysis: Khrushchev criticized Stalin's personality cult, vindicated miscarriages of justice, broke the superstition of Stalin to break the shackles of dogmatism, mobilized the people's production and enthusiasm, and contributed to the reform of other socialist countries. The adjustment of agricultural policy has played an active role. Agriculture is a weak link in the Soviet national economy and a major obstacle to the healthy development of Soviet society. Khrushchev carried out some reforms to agricultural policy and management system, such as large-scale land reclamation and cultivation of corn. Till 1962, the national land had a reclamation of 42 million hectares, the sown area expanded by about 30%, and the grain sown area expanded by about 70%. That not only alleviated the national food, reduced the burden on peasants, and created conditions to improve the agricultural structure.

In industry, the management rights had been given to the local government, that's a valuable experience for the reform of other socialist countries. At the time of Khrushchev, the Soviet industrial output value of the average annual grew at a rate of 10.3 percent that was more than all the developed capitalist countries and was double of the United States.
Other aspects of achievement. Diplomatically, he adjusted the US-Soviet relations, and the gradual development of the Cold War to the hegemony pattern, and made the world a long-term maintenance of an armed peace situation .Most importantly, He prevented the occurrence of another world war within a longer time period. He caused the Sino-Soviet split. The primacy of the military in its claim on economic resources continued, and accelerated as the arms race continued into far more expensive hardware.
The reform did not go beyond the Stalinist system, and could not solve problems completely. lack of a comprehensive and coherent strategic approach His personal style of impatience, caprice and confusion. For example, the Soviet Union only had 3.5 million hectares of corn acreage in 1953. Khrushchev was anxious. He demanded that the corn acreage should be expanded to 28 million hectares till 1960. Autocratic personality cult. In the Stalin era, the largest newspaper published his huge photos about 10-15 times a year, but at the first 9 months of 1964; Khrushchev’s photos were being published about140 times. After Khrushchev got power, he did not listen to others, and even took off his shoes and pounded the table in the United Nations General Assembly. In 1964, due to fierce party struggles, Khrushchev stepped down, the reform failed. -The public effects were limited to the release of some political prisoners, some of whom became troublesome until they were expelled rather than executed. Some victims of the purges and show trials were "rehabilitated," which allowed the children and families of some of Stalin’s victims to try to lead an ordinary citizen's life.
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