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Copy of MLA/APA/Chicago Style Citation Basics

Project Success Day, September 20, 2011
by

Katie Greulich

on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of MLA/APA/Chicago Style Citation Basics

MLA/APA/Chicago Style Citation
Chicago Style
MLA
APA
How To Solve Citation Issues, Without Losing Your Mind!
Conclusion
When in doubt:
1. Ask your professor for the syle they prefer.
2. Cite the information, especially if you aren't sure
3. Take your work to the Writing Fellows to check for citation issues!
4. Check the Purdue OWL or another handbook if you have questions.
*A system used to give credit to the work of others in
research writing
*Used by the Modern Language Association
*Used for writing research papers in the arts and humanities
*Changes often--the most recent version is 2009.
*Citation help can be found at:
*A system used to give credit to the work of others
in research writing.
*Used by the American Psychological Association
*Used for writing research papers in the social sciences
*Changes often, the most recent version is the Sixth Edition,
released in 2009.
*Citation help can be found at:
*A system used to give credit to the work of others in
research writing
*Used by writers in the humanities, mostly history.
*Changes often; the most recent version is the Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition, released in September 2010.
*Citation help can be found at:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/01/
When Do I Cite?
1. Always cite when pulling the author's words into your text, without changing them!

2. Always cite when you Paraphrase or Summarize the author's words!




Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).
Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263).
Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
Citation Copy-Editing Problems:
The
"hit and run" quotation
(Graff and Berkenstein, 44). This is when someone just drops a quotation into the text as if it can speak for itself. The quotation is not introduced at all, the writer does not say why they think it is worth quoting, or whether they agree with it, and they do not connect it with anything they are saying. The quote stands alone in the text while the writer rushes off to something else and the reader is left to make their own reading – or more likely, left confused!!
Example:
Subject-based and topic-based teaching curricular designs have had a contentious relationship over the last few decades.
"We were encouraged very much, ten years ago, to become very subject based and when the National Curriculum came out it was very much about putting subjects into individual boxes and a lot of creativity went out of the window then. We are now being pushed back to bringing back topic based work and that fits in very well with what we’ve chosen to do as a school" (Jones, 5).
Clearly, the debate is not over yet, especially as policy decisions continue to shape educational design.
Copy Editing Citation Problems:
The
"empty" quotation
is a quotation that states word-for-word what could be better said via summary (ie. paraphrasing). Empty quotes break up the flow of your sentence unnecessarily, and lead to poor style.
Fix It!
Use what is known as the quotation sandwich (or quotation equation, if you prefer):
Attributive tag
+
quotation
+
restatement of the quotation/explanation
of its importance= Correctly handled quoted material.
Revised!
The Deputy Head offered a problematisation, in order to justify change, which brought together a view about a lack of creativity in approach in the school with a critique of the rigidity of the national curriculum, stating
, "
We were encouraged very much, ten years ago, to become very subject based and when the National Curriculum came out it was very much about putting subjects into individual boxes and a lot of creativity went out of the window then. We are now being pushed back to bringing back topic based work and that fits in very well with what we’ve chosen to do as a school" (Jones, 5).

However, this externalisation is modified here and later in the interview to suggest that the ‘pushing’ amounted to external permission and strong encouragement to do something different and to take a direction with which the school agreed.
Example:
Trends across American society suggest that many proessional football players are suffering long-term neurological problems because of sports-related injuries. However, data doesn't always support this claim. In a summary of research conducted at NIOSH,Lauren Lebano states that "The overall football player mortality rate was 10% less than that of the general population of US men, but analysis showed that the football players had a significantly increased (60%) mortality rate for all neurodegenerative causes combined—three times greater than that of the general population of US men. This increase in neurodegenerative mortality was evident using both underlying cause of death rate files and multiple cause of death rate files" (Lebano, 1). These results suggest that while NFL players may live healthy lives long after careers are over, many are passing away of severe neurological damage accrued throughout their playing careers.
Fix It!
Trends across American society suggest that many proessional football players are suffering long-term neurological problems because of sports-related injuries. However, data doesn't always support this claim. In a summary of research conducted at NIOSH, researchers found that football player mortality rates were lower than the average male population, most likely due to the physical fitness required of their sport, but that analysis of that data showed that football players possessed a significantly increased--sixty-percent--increased risk of death from neurodegenerative diseases (Lebano, 1). These results suggest that while NFL players may live healthy lives long after careers are over, many are passing away of severe neurological damage accrued throughout their playing careers.
Correctly Cited? Correctly Copy-edited?
The New York Times Opinion recently had an article about the controversial issue of Online Education. In this article, the author Mark Edmundson, professor of English at the University of Virginia, convinces us that online education may be a good resource to expand learning, but it may not be the best instructional strategy.. Specifically, Edmundson explains that even though many big universities provide a variety of online classes, the students in the courses will not learn as efficiently as a student in a physical classroom. Every teacher analyzes their classroom to determine who the students are, and how they will adapt to learn best. As the author himself puts it, “The Internet teacher can never have the immediacy of contact that the teacher on the scene can, with his sensitivity to unspoken moods and enthusiasms” (2). He argues that courses change due to the people in them. An online course has only one style; either it fits or it doesn’t. Mark Edmundson’s article “The Trouble With Online Education” convinces college faculty, administrators, and students that online education is not a good option by establishing valid credibility, appealing to emotion, and presenting rational reasoning. Edmundson uses ethos, pathos, and logos by presenting experience, logic, and powerful phrases.

Correctly Cited?
Correctly Copyedited?
According to Economist-turned-teacher Charlotte Danielson, standardized testing “is very dicey. No one has found out to do this. The assessments themselves aren’t very good, and there are very many other problems.” Also when asked, “Are teachers right in saying forces outside their control impede student learning?” to which she responded. “It’s the truth. Some people chose to ignore it, but parental support and general cultural support matter hugely. There are whole populations of kids who don’t have that.” So from one teacher commenting on this it seems pretty clear on how teachers would feel.
Correctly Cited?
Correctly Copy-edited?
Of course, many gun-control advocates will probably disagree on the grounds that regulating guns further will not infringe on Second Amendment rights. People say that when the Second Amendment was written, it was written in a time of war when guns were necessary to protect ourselves. In Kevin M. Sweeney and Saul Cornell’s article “All Guns Are Not Created Equal,” the authors argue that when the Second amendment was created, it was created so citizens would have the right to bear arms and arm a militia, that way they could protect themselves and their country (3). They say that the Second Amendment does not apply to some of today’s modern guns, and the fact that there is no real need to form a militia. But the Second Amendment guarantees us the right to bear all arms; I think this includes the current modern weapons. If we interpret the Second Amendment as only allowing certain guns, this would take away from people who have any guns outside of the interpretation. For example, handguns weren’t made back in the 19th century, so those who own hand guns would have to relinquish them based on this adaptation of the law. It’s just isn’t right to limit the number of guns we can bear just because of what the founding fathers bore back in the day. As new guns are created for us to bear, then we should have the right to bear them.

Correctly Cited?
Correctly Copy-edited?
Monica begins her article with numerous statistics pertaining to gun violence in Chicago. Chicago, she discusses, finds itself laboring to stem a flood of gun violence where “gun violence contributed to more than five hundred homicides last year… and at least forty killings already in 2013.” Monica also discusses Chicago’s’ bans on both assault weapons and high magazines. She states, also, that Chicago has no civilian gun ranges, thus leading the reader to establish some form of logical reasoning as to where the weapons have been coming from. The reader is set up to infer that guns have been coming from outside of border lines where assault weapons and high magazine have little regulation.
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