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Transcript of Milgram (1963)
Thank you for your attention!
Ordinary people are astonishingly obedient to authority
Atrocities in the world may be due to situational rather than dispositional factors
The final solution
To be able to describe research into obedience (including Milgram, 1963)
To be able to identify factors that have been shown to affect levels of obedience in Milgram’s study
To be able to critically evaluate the work of Milgram and other research that has examined obedience
Todays learning outcomes
1) In pairs, one of you flips a coin, which will assign each of your roles:
: you are the 'Teacher'
: you are the 'Learner'
(Your partner takes the other role)
Starter task: A short experiment on punishment and learning.
You will be asked a series of questions by your partner (the 'teacher')
You must place your right arm on the table in front of you
Each time you get a question wrong, the 'teacher' will pinch your wrist.
The more questions you get wrong, the more it will hurt.
You will ask a series of questions to your partner (the 'learner')
Each time they get a question wrong, you MUST tell them the correct answer, then you MUST pinch your partners wrist.
You must increase the increment of 'pinching pain' with each wrong answer
Our two roles
The 'Nuremberg defense'
"Are Germans just more obedient?"
Participants given $4.50 to participate (Even if they withdrew)
40 male participants, recruited via newspaper advertising, for a study at Yale University
How far would most people go?
How far would you go?
(Indicate on mini white boards)
1/1000 (pathological fringe)
Eye on the exam
You have 2 minutes to discuss with the person next to you what you remember about explanations of why people conform (we looked at two last lesson...)
Outline explanations of why people conform (4 marks)
Eye on the exam
There were two explanations we examined last lesson: ISI and NSI. As a 4 mark question, you can split this up into two 2 mark questions:
Identify the explanation (1 mark)
Tell us what it is -examples would be good too (1 mark)
EG: One explanation of conformity is normative social influence. This explains conformity by suggesting that people conform because they desire to 'be part of the group'. Humans have a need to be social and so under this explanation a person may take on the position of the majority group without necessarily agreeing with it (compliance).
Think pair share
discuss with your talking partner and answer on your white boards:
1) In what way was this task fair?
2) Who was ultimately responsible for the pain inflicted?
3) Imagine this was an experiment you have all just taken part in: what ethical guidelines have been broken?
Fill in the sheet using your textbook
SUMMARISE the study in terms of
: What can we conclude from these results? (try to relate to the aim)
: what was the point of this study? what was Milgram trying to find out?
: What was done. Treat this like a recipe, or a set of instructions. What was the sample? how was it obtained? What did participants do etc
: What results were found? In this case, who was obedient, and how obedient were they?
One one side of your white board, write 'HIGHER'
On the other side of your white board, write 'LOWER'
Teacher paired with confederate who threw the switches to give the shock
Getting someone else to do it!
Experimenter left the room and gave instructions to ‘teacher’ by telephone
Teacher given support from two other ‘teachers’ (who were actually confederates) who refuse to obey
Teacher had to force learner’s hand onto the plate to receive electric shock
Teacher and learner in same room
Experiment moved from prestigious Yale university to rundown office in nearby town
Change of venue
65% of participants continued to give shocks up to 450 volts
Learner agreed to participate on the condition that ‘you let me out when I say so’
(So 65% is our baseline measure)
: you have 2 minutes to read about your variation
: You have 10 minutes in your groups to become 'experts'
-Discuss why this variation affected obedience levels
-Discuss discussion point for phase 2
(on your cards)
-As a group, create 2 questions on your material. You must all remember these (write them down if need be)
: You must now get into your groups to peer teach- can you figure out where you should be?
-Take it in turns to peer teach your variation (check phase 3 discussion first, on cards)
-THEN take it in turns (in the same order) to ask your questions (that your group made in phase 2)
Variations summary sheet
What can you remember?
Work alone or with a partner to fill in the percentage gaps for the variations of Milgram
-We will be examining some further evaluation points for Milgram
We will also be examining specific explanations as to WHY we obey
Flip questions: research into obedience
Who studied obedience in hospitals?
What was the name of the drug used?
What was the maximum recommended dosage of this drug?
What percentage of nurses obeyed Dr Parker?
Hoffling et al
Astroten (a made up drug)
95% (although it wasn't Dr Parker, it was Dr Smith)