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How The Physical Environment Affects Settlement Patterns
Transcript of How The Physical Environment Affects Settlement Patterns
In northern Manitoba, The land is fairly low, between 100-400m above sea level. This crates a very windy climate, which in turn, creates a relatively cold temperature range, usually from 10 to -30 degrees. This temperature creates a very short growing season, which makes food expensive, and thus few communities. The cold climate does bring polar bears, and beluga whales, which create a tourist attraction, providing the main source of wealth in northern Manitoba. This has created a settlement pattern of small clusters. Because people just can’t survive if they are nomadic up there. The land is too unforgiving.
In desert countries, like Chad, It is very hot due to a close proximity to the equator. This causes some months to go with as little as two mm of rain. This creates very dry soil, that is hard to grow in, and lacks many natural resources like trees and water. There are minerals underground, but it is difficult to get mining equipment when there are mo basic resources to use in the first place. Because of this climate, it is very hard to get extra money, or even make enough to stay alive. This means that it is almost impossible to gain the funds to live in a city, where there are more opportunities, but it is very expensive to start up and live there. This creates a scattered or even nomadic settlement pattern in the desert regions, made up of people who are looking for a better place to settle.
Climate 2: Mexico
Mexico has a tropical climate, with a temperature range of 19 to 26 degrees. This warm climate allows many animals to live in the lush forests along the coast. The warm weather also allows for scuba diving and other in-water activities. This in turn attracts tourists. Because of all the tourists attracted by the warm climate and nice beaches, there is a linear settlement pattern around the coast, where all the guests stay for their trip.
Climate 3: Chad
Soil Type 1: southern Ontario and Quebec
In southern Ontario and Quebec, There is some of the richest soil in the entire country, due to all the vegetation that once covered the area, and it being the warmest place in the country because of it being the southernmost part of the country a good amount of rainfall (500-1000mm annually) also contributes to the soil. This has affected our settlement patterns. When explorers were coming down the St. Lawrence River, they saw great forests on one side, and bare rock on the other. Because of the apparent liveliness coming from the soil on the south side, the explorers decided to make settlements on that side, creating a linear settlement pattern by the U.S border.
Soil Type 2:
Egypt, around the Nile
In Egypt, the soil is for the most part very dry, and hard to grow food on. One of the only places in Egypt where growing crops is possible is the nile.The Nile creates a lot of mud along its banks, which is usually used for agricultural purposes, but has also affected other things, like the buildings, for example. many of the houses along the Nile were made of mud before other building materials were common. Many houses are still made out of mud, even to this day. because of this soil type, the edge of the 6,650 km river has become peppered with a linear settlement pattern with plenty of farmland and structures.
Soil Type 3: Tropical Brazil
Most of Brazil is covered in giant rain forests. There is a constant cycle of fallen trees rotting and new life sprouting from the trunks. this, paired with an annual rain fall of over 1200 mm creates extremely rich soil, that is very good for farming. Because of the good soil, there are many farms around the country. some are subsistence farms, while some are large sugar cane and coffee bean farms for export. Although the forests have provided this soil, many of the forests are being cut down to create more room for farms and other settlements. The good soil has created a scattered settlement pattern inland, but at the same time, deforestation brings some people into the city clumps along the coast in a linear settlement pattern.
Land Form 1: Vancouver
Vancouver borders two main land forms. The first are the Rocky Mountains, and the second is the Pacific ocean. Both have affected the settlement pattern of Vancouver. The Rocky Mountains have been a well known skiing location for many years, and are very popular. It has created a huge amount of tourism, and so, a huge city. On the other side, the Pacific ocean is a very important port; it makes it much easier to import goods from the U.S to the west coast of Canada Than it was before the port. Both of these land forms have created a large clustered settlement pattern, on one side to house tourists, and the other tho ship goods.
Land Form 2: Chicago
Chicago is located right next to one of the largest lakes in the world, Lake Michigan. It crosses the Canada/U.S border. This convenient land form has created another great trade route form the U.S to Canada, because a lot of the time, it is cheaper to shop things by boat rather than use a truck or train. Another thing the waterfront has helped in Chicago is the tourist industry. People can take boat tours, or just walk along the large stretches of path that go along the lake. Things like these cause 46.6 million people to come and visit Chicago each year. These two things have created a large, clustered settlement pattern, along the lake.
Land Form 3:The Alps in Switzerland
In Europe, there is one big mountain range. They are the Appalachian mountains. they stretch for 1200 km across Europe, and reach heights of up to 4810 m. They cover about two thirds of all of Switzerland. This greatly affects the settlement patterns around the area. The alps are not flat, making them hard to build large settlements on. Because the mountain range covers the land from the southern border of the country outward, settlements are restricted to the north side of the country. It is said that the mountains are a very nice view, and so, there is a linear settlement pattern, along the mountains, with some large clumps.
Natural Resource 1:
The Yukon Territory
The Yukon Territory is a great example of settlements resulting from natural resources. In the late 1800s, there was a gold rush in the Yukon Territory. People came from all around to find their fortune in the ground. Settlements were quickly constructed to make room for the newcomers, and provide supplies for the journey into the mountains. After the gold rush stopped, many of the settlements became ghost towns, but many remained up and running, becoming tourist destinations in the Yukon Territory. These all form into a scattered settlement pattern, with some larger settlements along the southern border, where it is warmer, and people are more likely to visit.
Eastern Russia has many different kinds of natural resources, like wood, natural gas, and good agricultural land, used for farming a wide variety of crops. There are many mines in the area, from coal to petroleum, funding many industrial centers in the vicinity, such as Moscow, Rostov, and Lipetsk. All these natural resources have created many settlements in the area, all around the industrial centers, accounting for about two thirds of all the population of Russia. All the centers are large clumps, right by whatever natural resource they happen to be harvesting. The boundary to the settlements is around Moscow, because above that point it is hard for anything to grow, so the only things that can be harvested are from the ground, in the form of minerals. Up there the settlements are even more clumped because it is not very easy land to live on, but they are far fewer than down south in the country.
Resource 3: New South Wales, Australia
New south Wales, in Australia, is one of the richest areas in Australia for natural resources. It has a lot of space for farming, including grazing grounds for many large herds of sheep, and has some of the most habitable land on the continent. It also has many mines, for coal, petroleum, and some natural gases offshore. This, just like Russia, has created many industrial plants to process the resources like Sydney. These plants package the goods and send them off to other parts of the world for further manufacturing or use. This, in turn, has created large clusters as a settlement pattern to house all the factories and machinery, as well as provide space to live in the most habitable place in the country.
East Coast of Canada
Newfoundland and Labrador is the farthest east province in Canada. It is covered in shield, with various forests and meadows all around. These forests have contributed to the economy of the province, due to all the timber and pulp it provides. Fishing is also very big in this province. These things have also caused a mostly linear settlement pattern along the coast, because the forests are hard to clear in order to make many settlements inland, and the fish are also along the coast, creating more reason to stay there.
Easter Island Was once covered in lush forests all around the island. That was what brought the first settlers to the island in the first place. The vegetation created a great and prosperous community, with a clustered settlement pattern. Then, as the population grew, the forests got cut down, the surrounding ocean became over fished, and food became scarce. This divided up the population into a scattered settlement pattern made up of warring tribes, always on the hunt for food. Eventually, as the vegetation became more and more depleted, the population disappeared completely, leaving a deserted island for us to discover.
Vegetation 3: North Eastern India
India is a heavily populated country. This area has about 400 people per square kilometer. This is due in part to the tropical deciduous forests around the area, creating a very habitable place to live, providing plenty of good soil, natural resources like wood, and shelter from the hot temperatures. In many other parts of the country, there is little to no vegetation, making this place the prime land. These things all helped to form many clusters in the area, in turn creating the huge populations we now see today.
Issued by:Ms. Morris
Written by: Jeffrey Stevens